At the Forge - Integrating E-mail

Keep users coming back to your Web site with e-mail reminders about news or discussions that interest them.

I have been using my computer to communicate with other people for more than 20 years. What began as occasional participation in forums on local bulletin boards has become an inseparable part of my personal and professional lives. The daily flood of e-mail I receive from friends, relatives and colleagues often seems overwhelming—until I spend time without access to e-mail, at which point I realize exactly how important and useful it is.

This month, as I continue to unpack at my new home in Chicago and fight the bugs and glitches that make it difficult for me to continue discussing Bricolage, I look at a number of different issues having to do with e-mail in the modern era—Web/mail integration, mail/database integration and even fighting spam at the SMTP level.

Integrating the Web and E-mail

During the last two years, at least a dozen clients have asked me to set up Web-based forums. Indeed, it is rare to find a large, modern Web site that does not include a section for user feedback or participation. The question is, how do you incorporate forums into your site? In many cases, the answer depends on the type of site you're running.

If you're using a large toolkit, such as OpenACS, Zope or PHPNuke, at least one forum package is available for easy installation into your site. Not only is the look and feel of it closely integrated into the static pages and other applications, but these toolkits allow the same users and permissions you have set on the rest of the site to have access to the forums. In other words, you don't have to make someone a site administrator and a forum administrator separately; anyone with administrative privileges on the site is able to run the forums or any other application without further configuration.

Alternatively, you can install a separate Web forums package using the server-side technologies available on your server. For example, if PHP is available, you can install the Phorum package. It won't be integrated completely into the rest of your site, but Phorum is a powerful and stable package and works with both MySQL and PostgreSQL. There are many options from which to choose, with underlying technologies ranging from PHP and JSP to plain-old CGI programs written in Perl.

You also can go the proprietary route and license a package such as WebCrossing. I've used WebCrossing for a few clients, and although this package offers many more features than do open-source products such as Phorum, the differences are not great enough in most cases to warrant spending the money, let alone learning a package that cannot be modified or improved.

Finally, you can roll your own forums package, as I did in this column several years ago. Writing a set of programs that implement Web-based forums isn't difficult, but the time and effort in developing and debugging would be spent better learning an existing package. But for anyone who has a bit of experience with the Web and databases, producing a Web forums package means creating only a few tables (for users, messages and threads) and then providing people with the ability to insert new records (postings) into each thread.

All of these systems are more than sufficient for a typical small- to medium-sized Web site. And even if your site grows large, with thousands of messages posted by hundreds of users, it will unlikely tax any of these systems. That's because these systems all use relational databases to store messages, and even the smallest and simplest modern database server can handle thousands of transactions per day.

In an increasing number of cases, however, a simple Web-based forum is not enough. Although people might be willing to look through Web-based forums, they probably are not going to return to them day after day to keep track of the discussion. Whereas e-mail is a push medium in which the information is sent to you, forums are a pull medium, where new messages wait for you to request them.

Push and pull is not a new issue; those of us who remember the pre-Web Internet know that discussions used to be divided between mailing lists and Usenet newsgroups. The solution was to create various mail-to-Usenet gateways, many of which continue to be used today. Indeed, you can keep track of the latest bugs in GNU Emacs by subscribing to the bug-gnu-emacs mailing list or by reading the gnu.emacs.bug newsgroup on Usenet. The two are equivalent, facilitated by gateway software that transmits messages from one system to the other without unnecessary duplicates.

Do any such systems exist for Web-based forums? The answer is a tentative yes. After all, it's easy for a Web/database system to send mail to a list of e-mail addresses when a new message is posted. It is not much more difficult to create a sophisticated system of notifications, as provided in the OpenACS forums package, that allows users to subscribe to a particular forum or thread within a forum—and then choose to receive updates immediately or on a daily or monthly basis. In other words, the forum software is capable of creating an e-mail digest, in the same manner that list software can.

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