At the Forge - Server Migration and Disasters
Of course, all of the above assumes that you're working on a relatively simple site. Most modern Web sites, however, include relational databases somewhere in the mix for a variety of reasons. They are used for consistency and flexibility, as well as for development speed and the incorporation of a commonly used paradigm that's easy to debug and use.
Relational databases store information in one or more tables, commonly grouped into a database. (Yes, it's somewhat confusing to say that a database server contains one or more databases, each of which in turn contains one or more tables, but that's the way it is.) To move a database from one system to another, you need to move both the database schema (the table, view and function definitions) and the data itself. Of course, a database typically is owned by a particular database user (who generally is not the same as a UNIX user) and has specific permissions set on it.
If your Web site incorporates a database, you thus need to move that database from the old system to the new one, including all of the owner- and permissions-related information. How you do this depends on the database you're using and if any tricks are involved.
MySQL databases that use ISAM/MyISAM tables (the default and still the most popular option) simply can be copied from one MySQL system to another. Typically, all of the files associated with a database are in a directory with the name of the database under /var/lib/mysql. You thus can copy the foo database by copying the directory /var/lib/mysql/foo, including any files it might contain, into /var/lib/mysql/foo on the new system. (Be sure the database is shut before performing this operation.) Start up the server on the new system, and it should work fine.
Things aren't quite this easy with PostgreSQL, which keeps track of database schemas and data in a low-level binary format. Using tar or rsync to copy a PostgreSQL database is highly unlikely to work—and if it does work, it probably involves massive data corruption and might even crash the back-end database server. Instead, you should use the pg_dump tool, which allows you to turn a PostgreSQL database into a set of CREATE, INSERT and COPY statements in plain-text format. For example:
pg_dump -U mydb mydb > /tmp/mydb-dump.txt
The -U mydb portion indicates that we want to use the mydb database user. You might need to substitute a different user name. You then can put this dumped output into a working database with:
$ createdb -U mydb mydb2 $ psql -U mydb mydb2 < /tmp/mydb-dump.txt
Following these two commands, two databases (mydb and mydb2) are available, both owned by the mydb user.
MySQL makes it easy to handle such situations because of its built-in master/slave system. One database can be the master, accepting all SQL commands and queries, and another can follow along, allowing you to replace the master with the slave in case of catastrophic failure.
As I mentioned earlier, I was “lucky” enough to be in New York City during the massive power outage that affected millions of people in the United States and Canada this past August. Ironically, the outage occurred about an hour after I toured a potential client's server farm, where he demonstrated how his company backs up all its data to a remote location in Connecticut. (After all, what are the odds of something affecting both New York City and Connecticut? At least, that's what I was thinking while nodding in approval an hour before the blackout.)
If you're like me, the blackout didn't affect your servers, which are located outside of New York. And most co-location facilities have backup generators that can handle most or all of the facility's power needs in case of an emergency.
But, if your servers are located in your office or if you use only a simple UPS to ensure they continue running, the servers probably would be unavailable during a blackout like the one that we saw in mid-August, which lasted more than 48 hours in some parts of the Northeast. If your server is critical to your business, you might seriously want to consider moving it to a co-location facility.
But even co-located servers crash and go off-line; I can tell you this from personal experience over the past few years. This means that if you depend on your server, you should be backing it up on a regular basis. Moreover, you should be migrating it continuously to a server at another physical location, preferably hosted by a different company. But the differences should stop there—you want the software configurations to be as similar as possible. If you use rsync for all of the HTML pages, templates, software libraries and CGI programs on your server, and similarly automate a database dump and restore on the second server, the second server should be a close-to-exact replica of the first and should be available to go live at a moment's notice.
You even can go one step further and use both servers simultaneously. Of course, this is a far more difficult task, as it requires you either to use a single database server (creating a single point of failure) or to synchronize the databases at frequent intervals. But it's definitely possible, particularly on sites that are largely static, as we know from the success of Akamai, which has a hugely redundant array of servers all over the world. The more static the site, the easier it is to replicate and keep up and running.
This is still one advantage that commercial database software, such as Oracle, has over PostgreSQL and MySQL. Although the latter offer master/slave replication to varying degrees, the synchronization is neither as advanced nor as robust as what Oracle offers. Over time, however, I expect this situation will change, as such architectures grow increasingly common.
Practical books for the most technical people on the planet. Newly available books include:
- Agile Product Development by Ted Schmidt
- Improve Business Processes with an Enterprise Job Scheduler by Mike Diehl
- Finding Your Way: Mapping Your Network to Improve Manageability by Bill Childers
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Plus many more.
- diff -u: What's New in Kernel Development
- Server Hardening
- 22 Years of Linux Journal on One DVD - Now Available
- Giving Silos Their Due
- What's New in 3D Printing, Part III: the Software
- Controversy at the Linux Foundation
- Don't Burn Your Android Yet
- Firefox OS
- February 2016 Issue of Linux Journal