How to Build LSB Applications
A long time ago, people realized that code changes are cheaper and easier to make when they come earlier in a development process rather than later. With this in mind, the LSB Project has created a build environment to assist with the creation of LSB-conforming applications. This build environment provides a set of clean headers, stub libraries and a compiler wrapper.
The LSB stores much of its definition in a database. In addition to the portions of the specification that would be tedious to edit manually, we are able to produce a set of clean header files and stub libraries that contain only the things specified by the LSB. Using the database in this way helps to ensure the tools and specification stay in sync as changes and additions are made. The packages you need to install are described in the “Linux Standard Base Packages” sidebar.
Linux Standard Base Packages
You can get the LSB development environment from the Linux Standard Base (see the on-line Resources section); simply follow the links for downloads. You should install the following packages:
lsbdev-base: contains the headers and libraries.
lsbdev-cc: contains the compiler wrapper tools.
lsbdev-chroot: contains the alternate chroot-based environment.
lsbdev-c++: contains a static libstdc++, which can be used to port some C++ applications for LSB 1.3.
The first step in building an LSB-conforming application is to compile the code with the LSB headers. If the code doesn't compile, it probably is using something outside of the LSB. This isn't necessarily a showstopper, but it is something to which you need to pay particular attention. The LSB headers are installed in /opt/lsbdev-base/include. As a quick test, pass -I/opt/lsbdev-base/include to GCC and see what happens. The compiler wrapper described later does this step and some other related steps for you.
Once you have compiled your code, the next step and next test is to link the code together to form the final application. Usually, this step looks like this:
gcc -o app1 obj1.o obj2.o -lfoo
The LSB stub libraries can be found in /opt/lsbdev-base/lib and can be specified by passing the -L option to the compiler. These stub libraries are used only at link time. Typically, the normal system libraries are used at runtime. Again, the compiler wrapper described later handles these details for you.
Once you have linked your application, use the ldd command to see what shared libraries are being used. At this point, there should not be any shared libraries other than the ones specified in the LSB (and listed in the “Linux Standard Base Libraries” sidebar). If there are, you need to take extra steps to make them be linked statically. Usually, the -Wl,-Bstatic and -Wl,-Bdynamic options can be used to specify that certain libraries should be linked statically. By now, you may be seeing a pattern: the compiler wrapper handles this for you.
As an example, here is what the application xpdf typically looks like:
# ldd /usr/bin/xpdf libXpm.so.4 => /usr/X11R6/lib/libXpm.so.4 libt1.so.1 => /usr/lib/libt1.so.1 libfreetype.so.6 => /usr/lib/libfreetype.so.6 libSM.so.6 => /usr/X11R6/lib/libSM.so.6 libICE.so.6 => /usr/X11R6/lib/libICE.so.6 libX11.so.6 => /usr/X11R6/lib/libX11.so.6 libpaper.so.1 => /usr/lib/libpaper.so.1 libstdc++-libc6.2-2.so.3 => /usr/lib/libstdc++-libc6.2-2.so.3 libm.so.6 => /lib/libm.so.6 libc.so.6 => /lib/libc.so.6 /lib/ld-linux.so.2 => /lib/ld-linux.so.2
Here is the LSB-conforming xpdf:
# ldd /opt/lsb-xpdf/bin/xpdf libSM.so.6 => /usr/X11R6/lib/libSM.so.6 libICE.so.6 => /usr/X11R6/lib/libICE.so.6 libX11.so.6 => /usr/X11R6/lib/libX11.so.6 libm.so.6 => /lib/libm.so.6 libgcc_s.so.1 => /lib/libgcc_s.so.1 libc.so.6 => /lib/libc.so.6 /lib/ld-lsb.so.1 => /lib/ld-lsb.so.1
Getting Started with DevOps - Including New Data on IT Performance from Puppet Labs 2015 State of DevOps Report
August 27, 2015
12:00 PM CDT
DevOps represents a profound change from the way most IT departments have traditionally worked: from siloed teams and high-anxiety releases to everyone collaborating on uneventful and more frequent releases of higher-quality code. It doesn't matter how large or small an organization is, or even whether it's historically slow moving or risk averse — there are ways to adopt DevOps sanely, and get measurable results in just weeks.
Free to Linux Journal readers.Register Now!
- Django Models and Migrations
- Hacking a Safe with Bash
- Secure Server Deployments in Hostile Territory, Part II
- Huge Package Overhaul for Debian and Ubuntu
- The Controversy Behind Canonical's Intellectual Property Policy
- Home Automation with Raspberry Pi
- Shashlik - a Tasty New Android Simulator
- Embed Linux in Monitoring and Control Systems
- KDE Reveals Plasma Mobile
- Purism Librem 13 Review