Coverage Measurement and Profiling

“It is easier to optimize correct code, than correct optimized code.”—Yves Deville

Here is the output from running this simple Fibonacci program:

[zfrey@warthog prof]$ time ./fib
fibonnaci(0) = 0
fibonnaci(1) = 1
fibonnaci(2) = 1
fibonnaci(3) = 2
fibonnaci(4) = 3
fibonnaci(40) = 102334155
fibonnaci(41) = 165580141
fibonnaci(42) = 267914296

real    3m12.580s
user    3m10.566s
sys     0m0.127s
[zfrey@warthog prof]$

Now, we can look at the profiling data:

[zfrey@warthog prof]$ gprof -b ./fib gmon.out
Flat profile:

Each sample counts as 0.00195312 seconds.

 %   cumulative   self              self     total
time   seconds   seconds    calls  ms/call  ms/call  name
95.13     16.34    16.34       43   380.02   380.02  fibonacci
 4.87     17.18     0.84                             main

                        Call graph

index % time    self  children    called     name

[1]    100.0    0.84   16.34                 main [1]
               16.34    0.00      43/43      fibonacci [2]
                             2269806252      fibonacci [2]
               16.34    0.00      43/43      main [1]
[2]     95.1   16.34    0.00   43+2269806252 fibonacci [2]
                             2269806252      fibonacci [2]

Index by function name

   [2] fibonacci               [1] main

It's obvious where this program's bottleneck is—the fibonnaci() function itself. That fact should be evident from reading the source. What our profiling tells us that is not obvious from the source is the number of recursion calls that our calculation takes. Although fibonacci() is called directly from main() only 43 times, we are making approximately 2.3 billion calls as part of the recursion.

Fortunately, there's another way. Checking our reference on Fibonacci numbers, we find that there is a formula to calculate the nth Fibonacci number directly from n:

F(n) = round(Phin / sqrt(5))

I am not going to explain the mathematics behind the derivation of this formula, for the simple reason that I don't understand them myself. With this improved algorithm, however, once again I can rebuild, run and profile (Listing 4).

Let's see what gprof tells us this time:

                        Call graph

granularity: each sample hit covers 4 byte(s) no time propagated

index % time    self  children    called     name
                0.00    0.00      43/43          main [8]
[1]      0.0    0.00    0.00      43         fibonacci [1]

Index by function name

   [1] fibonacci

Our program is now so much faster that the sampling process failed to register any time spent. Although this is a good result in a way, it's not so good if we want to see if any more performance improvements can be made.

A standard technique from the gprof manual is to run the program many times and summarize the results, like so:

[zfrey@warthog prof]$ mkdir runfib2; cd runfib2
[zfrey@warthog runfib2]$ for i in `seq 1 1000` ; \
do ../fib2 > /dev/null; mv gmon.out gmon.out.$i; done
[zfrey@warthog runfib2]$ gprof -s ../fib2 gmon.out.*

The results, though, still show the time spent as 0.00. Clearly, a different approach is called for. I now create fib3.c, with two changes. First, I enclose the 0–42 loop with an additional 0–1000 loop, to increase our runtime. Second, I add a local variable to the fibonacci() function and break the calculation apart to one operation per line for line-by-line profiling. This gives us enough runtime that gprof has something to report:

Before doing a line-by-line report, though, I create a multirun summary, as before.

Now, let's look at the line-by-line report (trimmed to fit):

[zfrey@warthog runfib3]$ gprof -b -l -p ../fib3 gmon.sum
Flat profile:

Each sample counts as 0.00195312 seconds.
 %   cumulative   self             self     total
time   seconds   seconds   calls  ps/call  ps/call  name
38.25      1.12     1.12                            fibonacci (fib3.c:31)
27.97      1.94     0.82                            fibonacci (fib3.c:30)
14.49      2.36     0.42                            fibonacci (fib3.c:29)
 5.91      2.53     0.17                            main (fib3.c:16)
 4.64      2.67     0.14                            main (fib3.c:15)
 3.14      2.76     0.09                            fibonacci (fib3.c:32)
 1.87      2.82     0.05                            main (fib3.c:14)
 1.54      2.86     0.04                            main (fib3.c:14)
 0.83      2.89     0.02 43000000   567.77   567.77 fibonacci (fib3.c:26)
 0.77      2.91     0.02                            main (fib3.c:21)
 0.53      2.92     0.02                            main (fib3.c:13)
 0.07      2.93     0.00                            main (fib3.c:20)

The highest percentage of time is spent on line 31, followed by line 30. There is nothing we can do about line 31, because the printf() call and the function return are essential operations. However, on line 30, notice that we are calculating the square root of 5 every time. Because this result never changes, the next optimization should be to replace it with a constant. This cuts the execution time from 136 milliseconds to 22 milliseconds.



Comment viewing options

Select your preferred way to display the comments and click "Save settings" to activate your changes.

Is there any coverage tool

Neeraj's picture

Is there any coverage tool available that only works on source files and not on executables. I mean I dont want to compile the source files even once still I want to find out the coverage in the code.
Is it possible?

Please help. I'll really appreciate your effort if you get me any information regarding the matter.


help needed in installing ggcov

savita's picture

We have tried installing ggcov

we had followed following steps.

./configure (it satisfies our pc configuration)

make install

It is not getting installed properly...
How can we check it is properly installed or not....?
Is there any other steps to covered...

please kindly help


hai, i understood your

Raja's picture

i understood your problem.....
me also struck with that problem but what i did was,
i just installed ggcov-06 instead of ggcov-08.....
in ggcov ,it is asking someother file which we could not get fro internet...
so better to go to install ggcov-06
thanks and regards,


Anonymous's picture

when i try to run ggcov in SUSE LINUX 10.1 using the command line ggcov ,i do not get any error message.but the results are not displayed.
the installation had no problems.
If anybody who is familiar with ggcov can give me a detailed idea about how to use this tool,please reply.


Anonymous's picture

anybody kindly post a reply regarding how to implement ggcov

I could run ggcov successfully on the command prompt but I can't view any GUI.So please tell me the syntax/procedures of using ggcov.My linux version is SUSE 9.0

error on running kprof

lalitha's picture

when i try to make the kprof i am getting this errors..
Kindly help me to correct and run the application

parseprofile_pose.h:30: error: expected `)' before â&â token
parseprofile_pose.cpp:29: error: prototype for âCParseProfile_pose::CParseProfile_pose(QTextStream&, QPtrVector&)â does not match any in class âCParseProfile_poseâ
parseprofile_pose.h:28: error: candidates are: CParseProfile_pose::CParseProfile_pose(const CParseProfile_pose&)
parseprofile_pose.h:36: error: CParseProfile_pose::CParseProfile_pose()

need help for GCOV

Anonymous's picture

I have a problem:
I'm not able to gcc -fprofile-arcs -ftest-coverage file.c
Could you let me know how I can set environemt CFLAGS variable?
I have problem when I gcc on glib files i.e garray.c

please hel--

valgrind coverage

John Pye's picture

I thought I'd add a comment to say that some people are using Valgrind to do coverage testing using the 'cachegrind' tool.

Great article, a nice clear introduction to the topic.


Anonymous's picture

Thanks very much for this informative example. I was surprised that 50% is about average for code coverage!

Re: Coverage Measurement and Profiling

Anonymous's picture

Very nice article, I enjoyed it and learned new (for me) methods

thanks a lot

Don't forget lcov!

Anonymous's picture

lcov is a nice addition to gcof; like ggcov, it shows summaries
for multiple files. It goes beyond ggcov, I think, in that it
handles entire directory hierarchies. It can handle the Linux
kernel and Wine, for instance. It outputs HTML rather than
presenting a GUI, but that's kind of a plus in my book.
It's at

Re: Don't forget lcov!

ZachFrey's picture

Lcov does look very nice. My intent wasn't to do a comprehensive survey of tools, but to introduce the basics of gcov and gprof and give an example of a representative "add-on" for each.

Geek Guide
The DevOps Toolbox

Tools and Technologies for Scale and Reliability
by Linux Journal Editor Bill Childers

Get your free copy today

Sponsored by IBM

Upcoming Webinar
8 Signs You're Beyond Cron

Scheduling Crontabs With an Enterprise Scheduler
11am CDT, April 29th
Moderated by Linux Journal Contributor Mike Diehl

Sign up now

Sponsored by Skybot