Running Linux and Netfilter on Nokia IP Series Hardware

A tutorial for setting up some open-source software on market leading, proprietary firewall hardware.
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth[n]

If the desktop PC has only one Ethernet interface, the Red Hat installer creates only one network config file for eth0, located at /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0. The Nokia has three network interfaces, however, so ifcfg-eth0 should be copied to ifcfg-eth1 and ifcfg-eth2 in the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts directory. Each of these files needs to be edited to contain the correct interface names, IP addresses and MAC addresses. Interface eth0 under Linux corresponds to eth-s3 under IPSO, eth1 to eth-s4 and eth2 to eth-s5. To each of the ifcfg-eth[n] files add the line MACADDR=<MAC> where <MAC> is the original MAC address, as reported under IPSO before the Nokia disk was formatted. This mitigates the problem of the Ethernet driver not being able to read the MAC addresses directly out of the EEPROM chips.

Operation

If all has gone well up to this point, it now is time to shut down the desktop system and return the drive to the Nokia machine. Be sure to re-attach the top of the IP330 case to keep the CPU cool during intensive operations, such as a kernel compile. The four fans at the back of the machine are effective only when the case is sealed, and a good way to demonstrate this point is to try consecutive kernel compiles without the top attached. The CPU usually overheats and causes the machine to crash during the first compilation attempt. With the case properly secured, the number of consecutive kernel compiles has no affect on the stability of the machine, which is what one would expect.

Before booting the IP330, reinstall the desktop disk in the desktop PC and boot into Linux. Use the serial cable to connect the two serial ports on the two systems and run minicom. Recall the serial port settings we specified in /etc/lilo.conf, and configure minicom to match.

Now we are ready to boot Linux on the IP330. After the memory test is finished (which can be interrupted by pressing the ESC key twice) the familiar LILO boot prompt should be displayed and then the kernel boot sequence happily flows past. After the sequence is finished, init gets a chance to run and eventually a login prompt is displayed (see Resources).

Even though we are successfully running Linux on the IP330 at this point, it still is a good idea to recompile the kernel from scratch in order to put the operating system through its paces. This helps to ensure Linux is indeed stable on a hardware platform not specifically designed to run Linux. Besides, an added bonus is the 256MHz processor probably allows enough time to grab a quick sandwich during the recompilation process.

iptables

With the Nokia up and running, connect it to the network and test by pinging another host on the same network; use your default gateway or the Linux desktop machine, if necessary. Then execute the command:

iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -i eth0 -j LOG

Ping the host again, and this time iptables log messages should show up in the /var/log/messages system log when the icmp echo reply packets reach the firewall.

To test the filtering ability of iptables, execute the following command and then try to ping the host again:

iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -i eth0 -j DROP

The reply packets now should be logged and dropped, so the ping does not succeed. We have established that iptables can both log and filter traffic, but we have one more test to run:

iptables -I INPUT 1 -i eth0 -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT

Execute the ping once more, and it should work once again even though both the log and drop rules still are in effect. This illustrates the stateful capability of iptables, in which packets associated with legitimate network traffic are let through and no log messages are generated (see Resources).

Software Installation

Depending on the specific application of the IP330 in your network, you may require software additional to what is listed here. But, at a minimum you probably want to download and compile the latest versions of the OpenSSL libraries, OpenSSH and the iptables user space code. If you require the Nokia to become part of an OSPF area, install the Zebra routing dæmon. If you require the Nokia to failover to another machine, install Keepalived and configure it to run VRRP. The VRRP implementation of Keepalived is particularly good. It is extremely easy to put one or all three interfaces on the Nokia into a "sync group" that failovers all interfaces if the link on any particular interface is lost. If you require the Nokia to form an endpoint for an IPSEC VPN, install FreeSWAN (see Mick Bauer's Paranoid Penguin columns from the January and February 2003 issues of LJ for an excellent exposition on FreeSWAN). One of the biggest advantages to running Check Point Firewall-1 is the GUI interface, which makes it easy to configure a firewall policy. Firewall Builder provides similar functionality for iptables, and Mick Bauer covers it in the May issue of Linux Journal.

______________________

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Coreboot on Nokia IP530

Anonymous's picture

Hi all,

In the coreboot project www.coreboot.org is a solution for the IP530 to run Coreboot, Seabios and Sgabios. This enables the IP530 to boot any OS. I'm currently running debian linux on it. Status of the hardware versus the bios, all on-board hardware is supported, so 4x NIC, 2 slot PCMCIA/Cardbus, two serial ports, dual IDE-HDD controller,

Last kernel version with

Anonymous's picture

Last kernel version with becker driver is 2.6.27

Nokia has step into many

nokia 5310's picture

Nokia has step into many areas apart from Mobile handsets.

Well there are many new researches and ideas about how to setup new functionality in Nokia devices which are quite necessary and essential.

Good to know about latest things in Nokia from Linuxjournal..

I am searching for a nice

nokia 5310's picture

I am searching for a nice ?Linux platform for my latest gadgets thanks a lot for providing the script thanks for the post regards : nokia 5310

Hi im trying to configure a

Chris's picture

Hi im trying to configure a Nokia IP330 now, but i could not find the NAT option. Can anyone guide me on how does NAT works on nokia? Thanks alot, look forward to your replies.

IP130 and hard drive 40GB

michal's picture

Hello,
does anybody run IP130 with HDD larger than 30GB? I have bouhgt HDD 40GB and it doesn't boot. I have tried with borrowed HDD30GB and everything was OK.
Do you have any suggestions?

IP 130 and hard drive 40GB

Anonymous's picture

Hi there,

This may not be the correct answer, but when I spoke to Nokia tech support today about the hard disk size limitation on my IP530, this is what he responded:

===================================================================

The Ip530 can either support up to a 32gig HD or a 40 gig HD.

Any customer with an IP530 serial numbers prior to 9N0229XXXXX) that requests replacement or secondary drives should be supplied with FRUNIY0503FRU (32GB). Customers with IP530 serial numbers after 9N0229XXXXX should be supplied FRU NIY0502FRU (40GB).

You can view and update your case by logging onto the Nokia Support Web at https://support.nokia.com or by replying to this email. Please do not edit the subject or reply-to fields of your email response.

Thank you,
Nokia Technical Support

====================================================================

You may want to go to http://support.nokia.com and open a trouble ticket over there to get a correct answer.

Good luck!

IP130 and hard drive 40GB

Anonymous's picture

Hi!
Have you solved the hard drive issues?
cus I have same problem :(

Another way using VMware and other bits of info.

David W Studeman's picture

I have managed to use VMWare to create a fixed image the same size of the drive I use and use winimage to copy the vmware image. I'm using IPCop but have Endian Firewall on one of my IP330's as well. I use a usb to ide converter for the actual drive slaving for direct imaging when done making the vmware image. I like the usb bridge because it's quick and when I plug it into my SuSE box, the three ext3 partitions automount in /media and I can then edit the necessary files for making it work in the Nokia. The reason I don't just install IPCop directly to the physical drive is because VMware sees usb driven drives as scsi. Obviously once the drive is in the nokia hooked up normally, drive sd will not make sense as it will look for hd since it really is an ide. I did have to change the extension of the .vmdk image to .vhd so winimage would see it. Anyway you look at it, a flat image the exact size of the hard drive is just a hard drive image, you must configure vmware to make it act as an ide so you actually get a proper ide hd image. The variable image size which is default would likely create all sorts of errors. Another way with Vmware is to actually slave the nokia drive into an ide ribbon, boot back up, install whatever you plan to run on the Nokia in VMware using that physical drive and yes it will warn you about this. The USB ide adapter and using Winimage is the easiest way if you have the adapter since there is no shutting down the host machine and opening it.
I keep seeing people say that the Nokia IP330 uses a K6-2 266. I own two and they are both 400mhz and the 256 you see in the bios is actually how much L2 cache it has as the actual speed is not echoed out with this rather terse bios. My IP330's are both IP2331's which is the platform model. I notice some say that their IP330's are actually IP2330's which is the same platform as the P050 which cost next to nothing on ebay these days. BTW, of my two IP2331's, one motherboard is Rev A and the other is Rev B. Technically, it is the OS that determines if it is an IP330 or whatever. I do think the firewall/router distros such as IPCop, Smoothwall, Endian (based on IPCop but more tweakable), Monowall and PFsense (almost there) will be ideal for this hardware. With any of these running on this platform, at least the 400mhz versions, the firewalled throughput is around 80 to 90mbs. VPN would drop that down but your average firewall/router you buy for a couple hundred at the computer store would throughput much less. Don't be fooled by the 10/100 port as this is just line speed and does not indicate what the device can really pass through it. If people only knew how choked some of them (book size with wall wart power supply) really are, they would be appalled.
Optional hardware: The front is a 3U 32 bit cPCI (Compact PCI) bay and the os sees this the same as any other 32 bit pci bus, the exception is that it is hotpluggable and all recent Linux kernels support this. The one in the rear is a 32 bit PMC bay, also a 32 bit PCI bus but you have to take the unit apart to place a PMC module in there so that would be one you would want to use for something that you are not likely to change. Adapters DO exist to use standard pci devices in either PMC or cPCI bays but you cannot put a pci card on a cPCI adapter and hotplug it but at least you can use regular pci hardware.
Why do this at all? Because we can and the hardware can be had cheap now. Never mind whether we should or not, what fun is that?

IPcop on Nokia IP330 boxs

Dave Finley's picture

How about a tutorial on installing IPcop on one of these critters?

Hints and questions for endian firewall and nokia IP130

Hahtokari Mika's picture

Hi,

I have played around with Nokia IP130 and Endian firewall distro. I managed to make hardware to boot with endian and was able to connect with serial terminal to it.

Mine method was install Endian on a intel 400mhz laptop with intel NIC. I disabled USB and PCMCIA detection during setup. After installation and few tweaks for a serial and grub i switched HD to mine nokia ip130.

Mine problem recards with ethernet not showing up. e100 Driver wont load due the checksum error. Any hints how to proceed?

I do have also a problem that terminal connection is not reliable ... it acts funny quite often. What i should double check?

Another tweak i needed to do was related to grub. I needed to disable showing of that fancy bootscreen during endian boot up.

Slurp image

Anonymous's picture

Has anyone had the presence of mind to do a
Ghost4Unix type operation on their successfully
built box? If so, can someone post a link for it?

Help! receiving just AT after installing linux

Ste's picture

I have a Nokia IP330 unused, so I decided to transform it in a Linux server to use it for some services. That's simple.

I installed slackware (putting the hd in another pc) succesfully once, then I decided to reinstall it, because some things were not working properly, but now I just receive AT on serial line.

I repeated the whole procedure many times, but I not able to get it working.

Has anybody an idea about this problem?

Ste

Re: Running Linux and Netfilter on Nokia IP Series Hardware

Anonymous's picture

I have a Nokia IP 330 (K62-400/256MB) working with Gentoo 2004.1 on kernel 2.6.5-mm6. Make sure you install distcc :)

I had to make two changes to e100.c in /usr/src/linux/drivers/net/ to handle the bad eeprom errors:

- if(checksum != nic->eeprom[nic->eeprom_wc - 1]) {
+ /*if(checksum != nic->eeprom[nic->eeprom_wc - 1]) { */
+ if (0)

and

- if(!is_valid_ether_addr(netdev->dev_addr)) {
+ /*if(!is_valid_ether_addr(netdev->dev_addr)) { */
+ if (0) {

Dan

Re: Booting Linux and Netfilter on Nokia IP Series Hardware

Anonymous's picture

I should note that when I first looked at the machine, it wouldn't boot (nothing on the screen over the serial consold).

First thing I did was remove the CMOS battery for 10 mins and then retried. I was then greeted by the Award BIOS screen as expected.

I also ran the gentoo install (all the way from stage 1) on a P3-800 with 512MB ram to speed things up. Remember to use the k6-2 flags in make.conf.

Dan

Boot Problems

Anonymous's picture

I should note that when I first looked at the machine, it wouldn't boot (nothing on the screen over the serial consold).

First thing I did was remove the CMOS battery for 10 mins and then retried. I was then greeted by the Award BIOS screen as expected.

I also ran the gentoo install (all the way from stage 1) on a P3-800 with 512MB ram to speed things up. Remember to use the k6-2 flags in make.conf.

Dan

Re: Running Linux and Netfilter on Nokia IP Series Hardware

Anonymous's picture

Excellent article. I too have a spare IP330 laying around that I would like to put Linux on. I have tried debian, gentoo, FreeBSD and OpenBSD but I cannot get the OS to boot. I don't have a standard serial cable to use, but I do have the Nokia supplied cable.

Any suggestions?

joe_stevensen(at)yahoo.com

Re: Running Linux and Netfilter on Nokia IP Series Hardware

Anonymous's picture

I use a null modem serial cable (buy it at RadioShack) and works perfect (I give nokia support with this using my linux laptop)

Re: Running Linux and Netfilter on Nokia IP Series Hardware

Anonymous's picture

You don't need a "Nokia" supplied cable. All you need is a DB9 female/female null modem serial cable. These can be picked up for approximately $2.50 at most online vendors (try www.sfcable.com as one source).

Re: Running Linux and Netfilter on Nokia IP Series Hardware

Anonymous's picture

Got debian with LILO working.

Problems getting the NICs to work with kernel 2.4.20

Anonymous's picture

I'm using Red Hat Linux 9 with kernel version 2.4.20.

With Donald Becker's eepro100 driver, all three interfaces come up, but the MAC address for all three is set to FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF, the driver reports an invalid EEPROM checksum, and I cannot set the proper MAC addresses with ifconfig (as your instructions specify). I've posted a more complete description of everything I tried to comp.os.linux.hardware.

Does anyone have any suggestions?

Kind regards,Matthew Economou (meconomou at cchmc.org)

Re: Problems getting the NICs to work with kernel 2.4.20

mrash's picture

Hi Matthew -

It sounds like you have tried everything to get the Becker driver
to work (eepro100-diag, etc.). For the Becker driver I don't really
have any additional suggestions. However, in my testing I was also able to get the Intel e100 driver to work after disabling the
checksum verification code directly within the driver (I also got
the "corrupted EEPROM" message). Here is a trivial patch that
disables the checksum verification (unfortunately I don't have the
version number of the driver code that matches this patch since I
did the work for the article several months ago). However, it should be easy to get the patch to work against other versions of the e100 driver.

[root@fwtest2 src]# diff -u e100_main.c.orig e100_main.c
--- e100_main.c.orig Tue Dec 10 20:01:05 2002
+++ e100_main.c Tue Dec 10 14:54:31 2002
@@ -704,7 +704,8 @@
/* Check if checksum is valid */
cal_checksum = e100_eeprom_calculate_chksum(bdp);
read_checksum = e100_eeprom_read(bdp, (bdp->eeprom_size - 1));
- if (cal_checksum != read_checksum) {
+/* if (cal_checksum != read_checksum) { */
+ if (0) {
printk(KERN_ERR "e100: Corrupted EERPROM on instance #%d
",
e100nics);
rc = -ENODEV;

BTW, thanks for reading the article. Let me know how it turns
out or if you have other questions please don't hesistate to send
me email. (I tried responding your meconomou@cchmc.org address but encountered a mail loop.)

--Mike

RE: Problems getting the NICs to work with kernel 2.4.20

cyril's picture

Hi,
I have an IP350 and I need to run a Linux 2.6 on it.
I did the e100 module modification.
The module is loaded and I can see the link status up when I connect the cable.
I set the MAC and the IP address with ifconfig.
Then I can see paquet going out off the IP350, but it seems that the module does not see the incomming traffic. I did a tcpdump in promiscus mode and i can't see anything.
On the remote PC, I can see the ARP-who-has sent by the IP350 and the response.

I tried the eepro100 module, but whit it, the link status is not handled.
Is anyone have a way to solve?

IP350

David W Studeman's picture

I have a few recently acquired ip350 units and I did get it to boot up on IPCop 1.4.11. I got the eepro100 module to load and also was able to assign the mac addresses I saved from the ipso 3.7 install. Only trouble is it would neither receive nor send packets. I downloaded various iterations of the e100 driver since I have a developer version of IPCop running in VMWare and in one instance, I could receive packets but not send. That's the closest I got so far. BTW, the Intel chips are i82559er. I wish we could get more documentation on the hardware itself since Nokia is discontinuing the IP350 and IP380 near the end of November. The pcmcia controller is a Ti 1225 which behaves as it does in many laptops, it does not have an irq set by the bios. The yenta driver in the 2.4 kernel is next to impossible to route irq's with since it does not do well with options. In the 2.6.10 and newer kernels, it should work much differently. Some actually compile the kernel without the yenta driver in 2.4, this supposedly forces the driver in the pcmcia_cs to be compiled instead. This makes the IP330 look so easy. I do like the slide out board of these though, it takes only seconds for me to open it, pop the drive off the board and plug it into a usb to ide bridge with a 2.5" drive adapter on my linux box and I can edit files and change driver modules easily enough. The saddest part about the i82559er chips is that they are better supported in BSD than in Linux. Intel doesn't even list the driver for Linux on this chip but the newer compatible cousin, the i82551er chip does have a Linux driver listed. That said, the idea of finding a quad gigabit pmc adapter looks attractive.

IP350 and Linux

cyril's picture

OK, thanks.
Si if I understand:
- the 4 internel NICs are not usable
- the PCMCIA is not efficient du to an IRQ issue but is working

is that right?
I found a ETRHERNET pcmicia card to test, il will do so and send the results ASAP.

Re: Running Linux and Netfilter on Nokia IP Series Hardware

mrash's picture

I should have probably been more clear in the article about my motivation for getting Linux to run on the Nokia:

1. My current employer has purchased over 400 of these devices and so buying support to upgrade to newer versions of IPSO costs a _lot_ of money.

2. Upgrading IPSO is not something that can be brushed aside, especially if a vulnerability is found in a part of the OS that _forces_ you to upgrade. This actually happened to us.

3. I did not claim the Nokia was a particularly nice piece of hardware (see the "Hardware Specifications" paragraph). Of course one could go out and buy any modern 1U machine and it will certainly out perform a four-year-old Nokia IP 330 and cost many times less. However, if you are an organization (like mine) that already has the hardware lying around and would like to make use of it, why not put Linux on it?

Thanks for reading.

--Mike

Re: Running Linux and Netfilter on Nokia IP Series Hardware

Anonymous's picture

What a tremendous waste of time to even do this. First of all the only value that Nokia's IPSO even provides in the first place, is that it is a harden OS that is compiled to match prefectly to the Nokia hardware. Nokia platforms are running by today standards, very slow processors, you could pick up a Intel server on eBay for a 1/4 of the price of a Nokia. The only thing that could be a bigger waste of time, would be running your corporate firewalls on converted X-Boxes... Get a life people, spend some money on a real firewall... If your data is worth so little, buy a Netscreen

Re: Running Linux and Netfilter on Nokia IP Series Hardware

Anonymous's picture

I think you're missing the point. If you happen to own one of these beasties already, this provides an alternative to shelling out big bucks to checkpoint for upgrades

Re: Running Linux and Netfilter on Nokia IP Series Hardware

Anonymous's picture

This is just about the most pointless thing you can do with a Nokia box. If you want to run a firewall on linux, just buy a well built intel box and stick quad nics and gig ports into it. Don't spend several thousand over the odds for a pc from Nokia

Re: Running Linux and Netfilter on Nokia IP Series Hardware

Anonymous's picture

I agree. If you're going to "roll your own," why buy a Nokia? For the same price (or less) you can get a much faster off-the-shelf type box.

Re: Running Linux and Netfilter on Nokia IP Series Hardware

Anonymous's picture

I suppose that the point is to run it on the old IP330 which came with AMD K6-2/266 and 64M RAM, but even in this case it is pointless, because IPSO is far more better than Linux (except filtering itself which is not stateful).

IPSO supports both IGP and EGP routing protocols, has a simple traffic shaper, fault management, You can run mrtg and squid, build proxies using netcat, use ntp for time sync and a lot of other things. I can't imagine running RedHat or any other Linux (maybe IpCop, but I am not sure) instead robust high quality security focused and more stable operating environment.

Yes, but have you compared th

Anonymous's picture

Yes, but have you compared the prices of FW-1 and Red Hat Linux?

Old news & There's a better way

Anonymous's picture

1. This is very old news. We have been doing that for atleast a couple of years now.

2. There's a much easier way of installing Linux on the IP330.

All you have to have is an IDE CD-ROM, a dual connector power cable, a dual connector IDE cable, the original console cables that came with the IP330.

- open up the IP330

- connect the IDE CD-ROM to the IP330 using the dual connector power cable and IDE cable (obviously connect the HD as well)

- connect to the IP330 using the "nokia" console cable with your favorite term program (minicom or securCRT type)

- When you use the original console cable, you will be able to get to the BIOS, change the boot order to boot from the CD

Then you have a fully bootable CD-ROM, you can install whatever the heck you want. I have installed FreeBSD and Linux without any problems. Might try Solaris x86 if I can get a copy sometimes.

Obviously, this will destroy your IPSO partitions (there's usually two, one for the boot mgr and one for IPSO). If you want to be able to revert, dd the partitions somewhere so you can dd back.

Be sure to arp -s your interfaces like the article has described.

Any problems with the CDROM i

John's picture

Any problems with the CDROM in the IP330? Mine doesn't have an option under the HDD for CDROM, I have set it to auto. Boot sequence is setup to CDROM,C,A but doesn't seem to want to boot. I know the CDROM is good and the CD is bootable.

-john

Re: Old news & There's a better way

Anonymous's picture

I purchased a second hand IP330 and unfortunately the IPSO image was destroyed through an upgrade. - All I get now from a console connection is a flashing cursor with "AT" displayed on the screen.

I want to install linux on the machine but I don't have the original Nokia console cable - thus can't see the BIOS to change the boot order. - Nore do I have the experience of fiddling with Kernels etc.

I have tried the dd command on another Linux box, but I'm a newbie and couldn't even get the second hard drive to mount!!!

Someone told me the ISPO files system is encrypted?

Anyhow,does anyone know of a tech support company in the UK that would be prepared to help for a low cost charge?

Thanks,

John - Email address provided below...

hin6schx02@sneakemail.com

Re: Old news & There's a better way

Anonymous's picture

Looking for details on how to access and configure ip330 bios. I dont have the original serial cable. Any details would be appreciated?

Re: Old news & There's a better way

Anonymous's picture

The Nokia "bios" is actually from Award. Go buy a standard DB9 female/female null modem cable from an electronics store -- usually < $10.00.

Re: Old news & There's a better way

Anonymous's picture

I've tried your suggestion with RedHat 6.2, 7.3 and 8.0

It boots off the CD and gets to the first menu.

when I choose the text install, it blanks the screen and hangs for a while.

After a bit it comes back with the following.

Re: Old news & There's a better way

Anonymous's picture

In case you're still wondering what to do about this problem, here is the answer:
This is an install via terminal, so when the installer comes up don't use text install but put this line in "linux console=ttyS0,9600" this will then show you the rest of the install.
Cheers,
Tristan Delsol

Add a GUI for iptables configuration

Anonymous's picture

If you miss the GUI configuration console from Firewall-1 on your new open source filrewall, check out Firewall Builder (http://www.fwbuilder.org/).

I cannot get into the bios

Anonymous's picture

I cannot get into the bios of my ip330, is there a keypress that is necessary?

Escape will terminate memory

Anonymous's picture

Escape will terminate memory countdown, tab will enter the bios. Be sure to use a 'correct' null modem DB9 F/F cable.

Actually, hitting tab will

David W Studeman's picture

Actually, hitting tab will stop the memory countdown like esc will but then shortly thereafter go into the bios.

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