One of the core ideas of software engineering is to divide a large project into separate modules. Modularization makes it easier to customize a system for your own specific needs, allowing you to write new modules and remove unnecessary ones. Using modules also makes it easier to distribute the work among many different programmers. A quick review of the available Linux, Apache, Perl and Python modules freely available on the Internet makes this point very clear.
OpenACS 4 (Open Architecture Community System), the toolkit for creating on-line communities that was initially examined here last month, dramatically improves on earlier versions in a number of ways. But perhaps the most important change is the division of functionality into modules, which are called “packages” in the OpenACS world. Because each package is self-contained, and because it is possible to connect any package with any URL, OpenACS 4 has made it easier than ever to create flexible community web sites.
This month, we take an initial look at OpenACS packages, including how we can install and use them. (This article assumes that you already have installed PostgreSQL, AOLserver and the core OpenACS functionality, as described in the last two installments of At the Forge.) Since most OpenACS sites use some of the functionality that comes with the built-in applications, rather than write everything from scratch, installing packages is something every OpenACS administrator needs to know how to do soon after installing the core system.
Consider the following simple CGI program written in Perl:
#!/usr/bin/perl use strict; use warnings; use CGI; my $query = new CGI; print $query->header(); print $query->start_html(-title => "Testing"); print "<p>This is some text</p>\n"; print $query->end_html();
If I install this program as test.pl in my web server's CGI directory, others can see the results of its execution by retrieving www.lerner.co.il/cgi-bin/test.pl. If I want this program to be available under a number of different names, I can copy it; the name that I choose will be reflected in the URL.
Things get a bit trickier if my server-side application consists of several CGI programs rather than a single program. If I want to have several copies of such an application suite running on my system, I must copy all of the program files. In many cases, it'll be easier to place all of the files in a directory, then copy the directory and all of its contents each time I want the application to run somewhere else.
Making such copies carries potential synchronization problems: if I fix a problem in one copy of a program, I will have to make the same change to every copy of the program. I can resolve some of these problems with CVS, but I also could eliminate this issue by keeping only one copy of my program on the filesystem. Then I could configure the web server (either Apache or AOLserver) to treat one or more URLs as requests for my program.
Now consider what happens if this application suite takes advantage of a relational database. Installing the application is no longer as simple as copying files or configuring the HTTP server. Now, we also need to have some way of resolving potential conflicts and confusion between the copies of a single application, such that the forums at /foo/bboard don't get confused with /bar/bboard in the database. If and when we remove our application from the system, we also will need a way to remove the database tables it used.
In OpenACS, the solution to this problem is APM, the ArsDigita Package Manager. APM was originally written by ArsDigita, a now-defunct consulting company that wrote the predecessor to OpenACS. ACS worked only with an Oracle database server, whereas OpenACS works with both Oracle and PostgreSQL.
APM handles a number of different issues inherent in server-side applications that use a database, including version control, scripts for table creation and removal and database independence. APM also has been designed to allow each copy of an application to have independent configuration variables and to be associated with one or more separate URLs.
An APM really is nothing more than a .tar.gz file with an .apm extension. The file is typically named like this: packagename-0.5d.apm—where packagename is the unique name associated with the package. This example package contains development version 0.5. Opening a package with tar -zxvf reveals a standard file and directory structure:
packagename.info, an XML file describing the contents of the package. This file, normally created automatically by the OpenACS APM application, tells OpenACS which files are associated with the package and which configuration parameters are available for the user. It also indicates whether the application is a singleton (i.e., provides services for the rest of the system) or an application (i.e., can be run from a particular URL).
The sql directory is where the table-creation (and table-destruction) scripts are located. Originally, when ACS supported only Oracle, this directory normally would contain two files: packagename-create.sql and packagename-drop.sql. The APM installer would run the create script when the package was installed and the drop script when it was removed. (The create script often runs INSERTs as well, seeding database tables with standard data for later use.)
Now that OpenACS supports PostgreSQL as well as Oracle, this directory structure has changed somewhat. Within the sql directory are oracle and postgresql directories that have parallel scripts for creating and dropping the tables. Each installed copy of OpenACS knows which databases it supports (based on the value of a variable in AOLserver's nsd.tcl configuration file), and thus chooses the most appropriate script.
The tcl directory contains Tcl files containing procedure definitions. These procedures are loaded into AOLserver at startup time, giving them a speed advantage over those defined inside of .tcl (or .adp) pages elsewhere in the OpenACS system.
The www directory contains what we normally expect to be associated with a web application. This is where we put our .tcl and .adp pages, as well as any graphics and auxiliary files associated with the application. OpenACS's query dispatcher, which makes it possible for server-side programs to support multiple database servers, works with XML files with an .xql extension; these also go in the www directory.
Because of how the OpenACS templating system works, it's not unusual for a single web page to use three files: a .tcl file for setting variables, an .xql file that defines the SQL query used to retrieve rows from the database and an .adp file that is responsible for turning the information into HTML.
APMs also may contain a number of other files, such as database upgrade and migration scripts (for those users who are upgrading from a previous version of the package), regression tests (to ensure that the package works correctly), administration facilities (under www/admin) and HTML-formatted package documentation (under www/doc).
Getting Started with DevOps - Including New Data on IT Performance from Puppet Labs 2015 State of DevOps Report
August 27, 2015
12:00 PM CDT
DevOps represents a profound change from the way most IT departments have traditionally worked: from siloed teams and high-anxiety releases to everyone collaborating on uneventful and more frequent releases of higher-quality code. It doesn't matter how large or small an organization is, or even whether it's historically slow moving or risk averse — there are ways to adopt DevOps sanely, and get measurable results in just weeks.
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- Secure Server Deployments in Hostile Territory, Part II
- Hacking a Safe with Bash
- KDE Reveals Plasma Mobile
- Huge Package Overhaul for Debian and Ubuntu
- Home Automation with Raspberry Pi
- The Controversy Behind Canonical's Intellectual Property Policy
- Shashlik - a Tasty New Android Simulator
- Embed Linux in Monitoring and Control Systems
- diff -u: What's New in Kernel Development
- General Relativity in Python