While on site at a Fortune 500 corporation recently, I overheard a tech support person whispering excitedly to a project manager, “Don't play any games on your PC! The corporate auditors have a way to find out exactly what programs you use and for how long!”
After loudly assuring the techie that he was all business and didn't intend to play games anyway, the manager smiled. Then in a much quieter tone he said he needn't be concerned; he was using Linux and not Windows, unlike most of the company.
If the tech's tale is true, the manager may indeed have reason for concern. Although the rumoured auditing application at this particular company was developed for Windows, the Linux kernel has a built-in process accounting facility. It allows system administrators to collect detailed information in a log file each time a program is executed on a Linux system. With this capability, our mythical corporate auditor could, in fact, collect information about who has been playing games on a Linux computer and for how long.
Although a company's interest in knowing which employees have been indulging in Solitaire on company equipment is of questionable merit, there are good reasons to use process accounting (PA). In this article, I discuss some situations where process accounting is useful, explain where to obtain and how to use the standard process accounting commands, and then demonstrate how to use the process accounting structure and system call in C programs.
I assume that your system has process accounting support compiled into the kernel. I make this assumption because the kernels on all of the Linux systems I have had access to are configured to allow process accounting, but your distribution may be different. If you compile and run the first code listing in this article as root with no command-line arguments but receive an error message, it is likely that process accounting support is not included in your kernel. You'll need to compile a new kernel and answer yes to CONFIG_BSD_PROCESS_ACCOUNTING, which is the BSD Process Accounting item in the General Setup menu. Recompiling your kernel is beyond the scope of this article, but instructions can be found at the Linux Documentation Project (www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Kernel-HOWTO.html).
On busy systems, keep in mind that turning on process accounting requires significant disk space. On my Pentium III system with Red Hat 7.2, each time a program is executed, 64 bytes of data are written to the process accounting log file. While researching this article and running the process accounting utilities on a test machine with low disk space, I discovered a monitor process that executes every second. The drive on that machine filled up quickly. Some server's dæmons will initiate a separate process for each incoming connection. On a production server that executes nearly 25,000 processes per hour, approximately 1.1GB of process accounting data is generated each month. Utilities, such as the accttrim and handleacct.sh script listed in Table 1, are available to truncate, back up and compress log files at regular intervals. If you plan on doing process accounting on a busy system, it will be important for you to learn about and use these utilities.
Finally, know that you must have root privileges on your Linux system to enable or disable process accounting, whether using the standard commands or creating your own.
One of the earliest uses of process accounting was to calculate the CPU time absorbed by users at computer installations and then bill users accordingly. With the greater abundance and relatively low expense of today's computing resources, this application has fallen by the wayside. If the distributed computing model catches on, however, this application could again become important.
System administrators may wish to use data collected from the PA facilities to monitor which programs are most accessed by users, and then optimize the system configuration for these types of programs. For example, part of the data collected by the PA facilities includes the number of bytes that are input and output by the program and the CPU usage. A system that runs a high percentage of I/O-intensive applications may need to be optimized in ways that a system running a high percentage of CPU-bound applications not.
At some point an administrator might be required to evaluate two products with similar functionality. Let's imagine that before making a selection, the administrator wishes to see which fish forecasting product the people are actually using. To do this, process accounting can be turned on for a week to record the names of all the commands executed in a log file. The administrator can then parse the log file to find out which command was run more often.
The most typical application of process accounting is as a supplement to system security measures. In the case of a break-in on a company server, the log files created by the process accounting facility are useful for collecting forensic evidence. A careful look at the programs an attacker has used on the compromised system can provide useful information about the damage done, as well as the intruder's methods and possible motivations. Evidence collected from the process accounting logs also may be helpful in court. I know of one criminal case in which this data, when uncontested by the defendant, led to a misdemeanor conviction.
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- Problems with Ubuntu's Software Center and How Canonical Plans to Fix Them
- My Network Go-Bag
- Firefox Security Exploit Targets Linux Users and Web Developers
- Doing Astronomy with Python
- Build a “Virtual SuperComputer” with Process Virtualization
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- diff -u: What's New in Kernel Development