Kernel Locking Techniques
Proper locking can be tough—real tough. Improper locking can result in random crashes and other oddities. Poorly designed locking can result in code that is hard to read, performs poorly and makes your fellow kernel developers cringe. In this article, I explain why kernel code requires locking, provide general rules for proper kernel locking semantics and then outline the various locking primitives in the Linux kernel.
The fundamental issue surrounding locking is the need to provide synchronization in certain code paths in the kernel. These code paths, called critical sections, require some combination of concurrency or re-entrancy protection and proper ordering with respect to other events. The typical result without proper locking is called a race condition. Realize how even a simple i++ is dangerous if i is shared! Consider the case where one processor reads i, then another, then they both increment it, then they both write i back to memory. If i were originally 2, it should now be 4, but in fact it would be 3!
This is not to say that the only locking issues arise from SMP (symmetric multiprocessing). Interrupt handlers create locking issues, as does the new preemptible kernel, and any code can block (go to sleep). Of these, only SMP is considered true concurrency, i.e., only with SMP can two things actually occur at the exact same time. The other situations—interrupt handlers, preempt-kernel and blocking methods—provide pseudo concurrency as code is not actually executed concurrently, but separate code can mangle one another's data.
These critical regions require locking. The Linux kernel provides a family of locking primitives that developers can use to write safe and efficient code.
Whether or not you have an SMP machine, people who use your code may. Further, code that does not handle locking issues properly is typically not accepted into the Linux kernel. Finally, with a preemptible kernel even UP (uniprocessor) systems require proper locking. Thus, do not forget: you must implement locking.
Thankfully, Linus made the excellent design decision of keeping SMP and UP kernels distinct. This allows certain locks not to exist at all in a UP kernel. Different combinations of CONFIG_SMP and CONFIG_PREEMPT compile in varying lock support. It does not matter, however, to the developer: lock everything appropriately and all situations will be covered.
We cover atomic operators initially for two reasons. First, they are the simplest of the approaches to kernel synchronization and thus the easiest to understand and use. Second, the complex locking primitives are built off them. In this sense, they are the building blocks of the kernel's locks. Atomic operators are operations, like add and subtract, which perform in one uninterruptible operation. Consider the previous example of i++. If we could read i, increment it and write it back to memory in one uninterruptible operation, the race condition discussed above would not be an issue. Atomic operators provide these uninterruptible operations. Two types exist: methods that operate on integers and methods that operate on bits. The integer operations work like this:
atomic_t v; atomic_set(&v, 5); /* v = 5 (atomically) */ atomic_add(3, &v); /* v = v + 3 (atomically) */ atomic_dec(&v); /* v = v - 1 (atomically) */ printf("This will print 7: %d\n", atomic_read(&v));
They are simple. There are, however, little caveats to keep in mind when using atomics. First, you obviously cannot pass an atomic_t to anything but one of the atomic operators. Likewise, you cannot pass anything to an atomic operator except an atomic_t. Finally, because of the limitations of some architectures, do not expect atomic_t to have more than 24 usable bits. See the “Function Reference” Sidebar for a list of all atomic integer operations.
The next group of atomic methods is those that operate on individual bits. They are simpler than the integer methods because they work on the standard C data types. For example, consider void set_bit(int nr, void *addr). This function will atomically set to 1 the “nr-th” bit of the data pointed to by addr. The atomic bit operators are also listed in the “Function Reference” Sidebar.
For anything more complicated than trivial examples like those above, a more complete locking solution is needed. The most common locking primitive in the kernel is the spinlock, defined in include/asm/spinlock.h and include/linux/spinlock.h. The spinlock is a very simple single-holder lock. If a process attempts to acquire a spinlock and it is unavailable, the process will keep trying (spinning) until it can acquire the lock. This simplicity creates a small and fast lock. The basic use of the spinlock is:
spinlock_t mr_lock = SPIN_LOCK_UNLOCKED; unsigned long flags; spin_lock_irqsave(&mr_lock, flags); /* critical section ... */ spin_unlock_irqrestore(&mr_lock, flags);
The use of spin_lock_irqsave() will disable interrupts locally and provide the spinlock on SMP. This covers both interrupt and SMP concurrency issues. With a call to spin_unlock_irqrestore(), interrupts are restored to the state when the lock was acquired. With a UP kernel, the above code compiles to the same as:
unsigned long flags; save_flags(flags); cli(); /* critical section ... */ restore_flags(flags);which will provide the needed interrupt concurrency protection without unneeded SMP protection. Another variant of the spinlock is spin_lock_irq(). This variant disables and re-enables interrupts unconditionally, in the same manner as cli() and sti(). For example:
spinlock_t mr_lock = SPIN_LOCK_UNLOCKED; spin_lock_irq(&mr_lock); /* critical section ... */ spin_unlock_irq(&mr_lock);This code is only safe when you know that interrupts were not already disabled before the acquisition of the lock. As the kernel grows in size and kernel code paths become increasingly hard to predict, it is suggested you not use this version unless you really know what you are doing.
All of the above spinlocks assume the data you are protecting is accessed in both interrupt handlers and normal kernel code. If you know your data is unique to user-context kernel code (e.g., a system call), you can use the basic spin_lock() and spin_unlock() methods that acquire and release the specified lock without any interaction with interrupts.
A final variation of the spinlock is spin_lock_bh() that implements the standard spinlock as well as disables softirqs. This is needed when you have code outside a softirq that is also used inside a softirq. The corresponding unlock function is naturally spin_unlock_bh().
Note that spinlocks in Linux are not recursive as they may be in other operating systems. Most consider this a sane design decision as recursive spinlocks encourage poor code. This does imply, however, that you must be careful not to re-acquire a spinlock you already hold, or you will deadlock.
Spinlocks should be used to lock data in situations where the lock is not held for a long time—recall that a waiting process will spin, doing nothing, waiting for the lock. (See the “Rules” Sidebar for guidelines on what is considered a long time.) Thankfully, spinlocks can be used anywhere. You cannot, however, do anything that will sleep while holding a spinlock. For example, never call any function that touches user memory, kmalloc() with the GFP_KERNEL flag, any semaphore functions or any of the schedule functions while holding a spinlock. You have been warned.
If you need a lock that is safe to hold for longer periods of time, safe to sleep with or capable of allowing concurrency to do more than one process at a time, Linux provides the semaphore.
Practical Task Scheduling Deployment
July 20, 2016 12:00 pm CDT
One of the best things about the UNIX environment (aside from being stable and efficient) is the vast array of software tools available to help you do your job. Traditionally, a UNIX tool does only one thing, but does that one thing very well. For example, grep is very easy to use and can search vast amounts of data quickly. The find tool can find a particular file or files based on all kinds of criteria. It's pretty easy to string these tools together to build even more powerful tools, such as a tool that finds all of the .log files in the /home directory and searches each one for a particular entry. This erector-set mentality allows UNIX system administrators to seem to always have the right tool for the job.
Cron traditionally has been considered another such a tool for job scheduling, but is it enough? This webinar considers that very question. The first part builds on a previous Geek Guide, Beyond Cron, and briefly describes how to know when it might be time to consider upgrading your job scheduling infrastructure. The second part presents an actual planning and implementation framework.
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