Linux IPv6: Which One to Deploy?
IPv6, short for Internet Protocol Version 6, is the next-generation protocol designed by the IETF to replace the current version of Internet Protocol, Version 4 (IPv4). Most of today's Internet uses IPv4, which is now nearly 20 years old. IPv4 has been remarkably resilient in spite of its age, but it is beginning to have problems. Most importantly, there is a growing shortage of IPv4 addresses, which are needed by all new machines and devices connecting to the Internet.
IPv6 comes along to fix a number of problems in IPv4 and to add many improvements to cater to the future Internet. The improvements come in areas such as routing and network autoconfiguration, security and mobility. IPv6 represents a big package of capabilities, of which addressing is the most visible component. The addressing issue gets a lot of attention, but it is only one of many important issues that IPv6 designers have tackled. Other capabilities also have been developed in direct response to critical business requirements for scalable network architectures, improved security and data integrity, integrated quality of service, automatic configuration, mobile computing, data multicasting and more efficient network route aggregation at the global backbone level.
This article exposes part of the IPv6 work conducted within the ARIES Project (Advanced Research on Internet E-Servers) in the Open Systems Lab at Ericsson Research in Montréal, Canada. The ARIES Project started in January 2000 and aimed at finding and prototyping the necessary technology to prove the feasibility of a clustered internet server that demonstrates telecom-grade characteristics using Linux and open-source software as the base technology.
IPv6 is an essential technology to be supported on such telecom-grade systems and clusters. Ericsson's vision is that all mobile users in the near future will be “always connected, always on-line”. This new service paradigm, together with the use of IP technology, opens up tremendous opportunities for service providers and network operators to create new and diverse services. However, the rapid increase in the number of internet users combined with the expected growth in the number of wireless internet devices requires a scalable and flexible IP technology to accommodate such fast growth. Therefore, it is essential to recognize that IPv6 is a key technology to realize the vision of a large number of users being always connected, always on-line. New services, such as IP multimedia, assume globally unique addressing for reachability. IPv6, with its very large address space, will guarantee a globally unique IP address for each device.
This article explores the different open-source projects working on IPv6. The goal is to experiment with the Linux IPv6 implementations currently available and present recommendations to favor an implementation for our Linux processors on our near telecom-grade Linux clusters. The recommendations must be based on several criteria such as the implementation development speed, its compliance to the standards and its performance vs. other implementations.
The first step was to survey the Open Source community and report on the IPv6 projects that aim at providing IPv6 implementations, enhancing an existing implementation or providing testing and verification for other implementations.
The WIDE IPv6 Working Group (IPv6 WG), part of the WIDE Project, was started in 1995 in Japan for the purpose of experimenting with and deploying IPv6. In late 1995, IPv6 WG had several independent implementations and held interoperability test events. As the specification was verified and interoperability became common, it appeared that it was ineffective for IPv6 WG to implement IPv6 stacks independently. For this reason, the WIDE Project started the KAME Project as a subproject for combining the power of implementations.
Although the members of IPv6 WG and KAME overlap, IPv6 WG mainly does technical and innovative research, while KAME is in charge of implementation.
The WIDE IPv6 WG goals can be summarized as providing IPv6 implementation and software, encouraging the deployment of IPv6 in production environments and developing a transition mechanism from IPv4 to IPv6. In addition, the project aims at establishing the technologies and expertise for the administration of IPv6 networks.
The expected output of the project is a free IPv6/IPSec code conforming to the RFCs.
The KAME Project is a joint effort of seven companies in Japan to create a free, solid software stack for BSD variants (FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD and BSD/OS), targeted especially at IPv6 and IPSec. The project was formed to avoid unnecessary duplicated development and to deliver a high-quality and advanced feature-full implementation.
The project started in April 1998 and is planned to run until March 2002. The core researchers are from the following companies: Fujitsu Limited, Hitachi, Ltd., IIJ Research Laboratory, NEC Corporation, Toshiba Corporation and Yokogawa Electric Corporation. They have committed to work on the IPv6 stack on a full-time basis, making the project one of their primary tasks. Their goal is to implement the best networking code possible under BSD copyright and present their results as free software.
The expected project outcome is an excellent quality code (provided as free software) for IPv6 and IPSec (originally based on WIDE Hydrangea IPv6/IPSec stack), which will be the basis for advanced internetworking in the 21st century.
The TAHI Project started in October 1998 in Japan as a project between the University of Tokyo, YDC Corp. and Yokogawa Electric Co, with the objective of developing and providing the verification technology for IPv6 through research and development of conformance and interoperability tests. The group works in collaboration with the KAME Project on the quality side by offering the verification technology developed in the TAHI Project and improving the development efficiency. It's also important to note that the TAHI Project also receives great support from the WIDE Project.
The TAHI Project resulted in creating:
Conformance tests: the project releases its conformance test suites bimonthly. The release timing may be same as the KAME stable release.
Interoperability tests with simple network: these tests verify if your target node can work in some certain typical networks. Since this test will be conducted in limited environments, this is set as the first step of the interoperability tests.
Interoperability tests with a multi-implementation environment: these tests verify interoperability with the real world.
Test scenarios and test tools.
The results of the project are open to the public for free.
The USAGI (UniverSAl playGround for IPv6) Project works to deliver the production quality IPv6 protocol stack for Linux in collaborating with the WIDE Project, KAME Project, TAHI Project and the Linux IPv6 User's group. We will discuss the USAGI Project and its IPv6 implementation in a later section.
The IPv6-DRET Project is a public Linux implementation of IPv6, funded by the DGA/DRET (French Military Research Agency) and codeveloped by INRIA Sophia-Antipolis and LIP6 Paris. IPv6-DRET was based on the Linux kernel 2.1, and the goal of this implementation was to test certain algorithms relative to quality of service (QoS).
The objective was not to provide a full-fledged implementation, rather to build enough functionality to test certain algorithms relative to QoS. Since routing issues are among the most important research interests concerning IPv6, their network stack is intended to accommodate both host and router IPv6 machines. Besides implementing the router specification, a great deal of effort also was put into the development of RIPng into GateD.
The project is no longer in existence. The development has stopped and the code is outdated.
The Linux IPv6 RPM Project prepares RPM packages for the RPM-based Linux distributions (i.e., Red Hat Linux, Turbolinux and Caldera OpenLinux) that consist of the software and tools needed to connect to IPv6 networks. The aim of the project is to provide RPMs that make it easy to get IPv6 connectivity.
The Debian IPv6 Project is part of the Debian Project. It aims at converting some of the Debian packages to be IPv6-compliant.
As you may have noticed, among all the projects listed above, only two provided serious IPv6 implementations targeted for Linux: the Linux kernel implementation and the USAGI Project. In the following sections, we look in detail at these two projects and implementations and see which one complies more with the IPv6 specifications.
The USAGI Project aims at delivering a production-quality IPv6 stack for Linux and the experimental operation of an IPv6-compliant network using the developed software in tight collaboration with the KAME, WIDE and TAHI Projects.
The group is comprised of several organizations from private and academic sectors to promote the implementation and deployment of IPv6 for Linux. The group members are the WIDE Project, CRL, GLUON PARTNERS Co., Ltd., INTEC, Inc., Toshiba Corporation, Hitachi, Ltd., NTT Software Corporation, Yokogawa Electric Corporation, the University of Tokyo and Keio University.
The project started in October 2000 and is scheduled to end on March 31, 2002. The existing Linux kernel has its own IPv6 protocol stack; however, based on the evaluation results done by the TAHI Project, the quality of the current implemented IPv6 stack is not as good as the IPv6 stacks provided in other operating systems such as FreeBSD and Microsoft Windows 2000.
The project collaborates with other research and development projects and organizations regarding the IPv6 system development and deployment. The USAGI Project collaborates with the KAME Project (an IPv6 for the BSD UNIX system) and with the TAHI Project (an IPv6 test and evaluation specification and tools).
The USAGI implementation relies heavily on the KAME code, which is the IPv6 stack on various BSD systems, and most of their efforts are in the direction of enhancing the stack and porting it to Linux. Currently the USAGI Project has an IPv6 implementation for the Linux kernel.
The output of the project is a free IPv6 stack for the Linux kernel and much improved IPv6 APIs in the glibc library. The project released its second stable release on February 5, 2001, and snapshots of updated code are available every two weeks.
- Android Candy: Google Keep
- Readers' Choice Awards 2014
- Handling the workloads of the Future
- How Can We Get Business to Care about Freedom, Openness and Interoperability?
- Days Between Dates?
- Synchronize Your Life with ownCloud
- diff -u: What's New in Kernel Development
- Computing without a Computer
- December 2014 Issue of Linux Journal: Readers' Choice
Editorial Advisory Panel
Thank you to our 2014 Editorial Advisors!
- Jeff Parent
- Brad Baillio
- Nick Baronian
- Steve Case
- Chadalavada Kalyana
- Caleb Cullen
- Keir Davis
- Michael Eager
- Nick Faltys
- Dennis Frey
- Philip Jacob
- Jay Kruizenga
- Steve Marquez
- Dave McAllister
- Craig Oda
- Mike Roberts
- Chris Stark
- Patrick Swartz
- David Lynch
- Alicia Gibb
- Thomas Quinlan
- Carson McDonald
- Kristen Shoemaker
- Charnell Luchich
- James Walker
- Victor Gregorio
- Hari Boukis
- Brian Conner
- David Lane