Remote Linux Explained
Whether you use the two-step PXE boot process (network loader and kernel) or the one-step Etherboot process (just a kernel), eventually the kernel is read into memory on the client and control is transferred to it. You might be wondering, what are the differences between a network boot kernel and a typical kernel built to boot from the local hard drive? The first decision you have to make is whether the kernel is modular or monolithic—meaning no loadable modules. If you've ever built a Linux kernel, you're aware that features are either selected with “Y” (include the feature), “N” (do not include the feature) or “M” (load on demand). If your kernel is monolithic, you cannot have any M features.
Several flags have to be turned on for a monolithic network boot kernel. First, if you're creating a monolithic kernel, you need to turn off modules support. In the .config file, you will see
#CONFIG_MODULES is not set
and if you're doing a monolithic kernel, you would turn it off, as in
CONFIG_MODULES=nYou must support ext2 filesystems if you intend to create them on the client or mount them from the server, as in the case of the NFS root filesystem:
CONFIG_EXT2_FS=yIf you intend to use a remote root filesystem, mounted via NFS, you will need the NFS options:
CONFIG_NFS_FS=y CONFIG_ROOT_FS=ySince you're going to use Ethernet to boot your remote client, you must turn on network configuration and, at least, support for the specific network interface card (NIC) on the client:
CONFIG_NETDEVICES=y CONFIG_EEXPRESS_PRO100=yLastly, you must configure the ability to get your IP address via RARP, BOOTP or DHCP:
CONFIG_IP_PNP_RARP=y CONFIG_IP_PNP_BOOTP=y CONFIG_IP_PNP_DHCP=yIf you are supplying your root filesystem via a RAM disk, instead of over NFS (see next section), you'll have to specify the RAM filesystem options:
In the modular kernel, you are allowed to use M to select modules to be loaded on demand by the kernel. Since the modules are not statically bound in the kernel, there must be a place to load the modules from when they are needed. The place provided by Linux to load the kernel modules is the RAM disk. This RAM disk is used only during the boot process and only to provide the kernel modules. Another use of the RAM disk, to provide the remote root filesystem, is outside the scope of this article.
To demonstrate the use of the modular kernel, we can make support for the MINIX filesystem modular, to support a MINIX root filesystem that will be loaded from diskette. To create a modular kernel, the first thing to do is turn on modular support and rebuild the kernel:
In our example, we're going to provide MINIX support via a dynamic module, so we'll make that option an M:
CONFIG_MINIX_FS=MAfter rebuilding the modular kernel and copying it (bzImage) to /tftpboot, we're going to need a way to load it. Tools like the open-source SYSLINUX package provide the means to load the modular kernel and provide the RAM disk. A sample default pxelinux.cfg file might look like:
DEFAULT bzImage APPEND vga=extended initrd=minix.gz root=/dev/fd0 ro PROMPT 1 TIMEOUT 50The configuration file says that the name of the kernel is bzImage, the RAM disk name will be minix.gz, and the client root will be loaded from diskette (/dev/fd0).
We will have to create a RAM disk that has the MINIX module (minix.o) on it, as well as insmod (the command to load the MINIX module), the console device (/dev/console) and linuxrc, the command that gets called when the RAM disk is invoked. (Refer to the initrd.txt file, written by Werner Almesberger and Hans Lerman and distributed as part of the kernel RPM, for a complete description of how RAM disks work in Linux.) To create the custom RAM disk that will mount the MINIX modular dynamically, and MINIX root filesystem from diskette, you must create a file and zero it out using dd:
dd if=/dev/zero of=minixroot bs=1k count=4096
Next, associate the file with a loopback device, /dev/loop0:
losetup /dev/loop0 minixrootCreate an ext2 filesystem:
mkfs.ext2 /dev/loop0Mount the device over a convenient mountpoint, say /mnt:
mount /dev/loop0 /mntCreate some favorite directories:
mkdir /mnt/dev /mnt/lib /mnt/sbinCreate the console device:
mkdev /mnt/dev/console c 5 1Copy the minix.o module into /lib, and sash and insmod into /sbin:
cp /usr/src/linux/fs/minix/minix.o /mnt/lib/minix.o cp /sbin/sash /mnt/sbin/sash cp /sbin/insmod /mnt/sbin/insmodFind out which libraries insmod needs:
ldd /sbin/insmodand copy them to /mnt/lib:
cp /lib/libc.so.6 /mnt/lib cp /lib/ld-linux.so.2 /mnt/libThen create a /mnt/linuxrc file that loads the minix module:
#!/sbin/sash /sbin/insmod /lib/minix.oMake linuxrc executable:
chmod 777 linuxrcUmount /mnt and detach the loopback device:
umount /mnt losetup -d /dev/loop0gzip the minixroot file, and you're ready to boot the client:
gzip minixrootThis example will get you as far as the kernel trying to load its root filesystem from /dev/fd0. To fully test out the example, you'll have to create a MINIX filesystem on the diskette, mount it and copy over at least init and sh, and the libraries they need, and create a console device.
- The Tiny Internet Project, Part I
- Machine Learning with Python
- Free Today: September Issue of Linux Journal (Retail value: $5.99)
- Bitcoin on Amazon! Sort of...
- Download "Linux Management with Red Hat Satellite: Measuring Business Impact and ROI"
- Epiq Solutions' Sidekiq M.2
- Securing the Programmer
- Android Browser Security--What You Haven't Been Told
- The Many Paths to a Solution
Pick up any e-commerce web or mobile app today, and you’ll be holding a mashup of interconnected applications and services from a variety of different providers. For instance, when you connect to Amazon’s e-commerce app, cookies, tags and pixels that are monitored by solutions like Exact Target, BazaarVoice, Bing, Shopzilla, Liveramp and Google Tag Manager track every action you take. You’re presented with special offers and coupons based on your viewing and buying patterns. If you find something you want for your birthday, a third party manages your wish list, which you can share through multiple social- media outlets or email to a friend. When you select something to buy, you find yourself presented with similar items as kind suggestions. And when you finally check out, you’re offered the ability to pay with promo codes, gifts cards, PayPal or a variety of credit cards.Get the Guide