Remote Linux Explained
Whether you use the two-step PXE boot process (network loader and kernel) or the one-step Etherboot process (just a kernel), eventually the kernel is read into memory on the client and control is transferred to it. You might be wondering, what are the differences between a network boot kernel and a typical kernel built to boot from the local hard drive? The first decision you have to make is whether the kernel is modular or monolithic—meaning no loadable modules. If you've ever built a Linux kernel, you're aware that features are either selected with “Y” (include the feature), “N” (do not include the feature) or “M” (load on demand). If your kernel is monolithic, you cannot have any M features.
Several flags have to be turned on for a monolithic network boot kernel. First, if you're creating a monolithic kernel, you need to turn off modules support. In the .config file, you will see
#CONFIG_MODULES is not set
and if you're doing a monolithic kernel, you would turn it off, as in
CONFIG_MODULES=nYou must support ext2 filesystems if you intend to create them on the client or mount them from the server, as in the case of the NFS root filesystem:
CONFIG_EXT2_FS=yIf you intend to use a remote root filesystem, mounted via NFS, you will need the NFS options:
CONFIG_NFS_FS=y CONFIG_ROOT_FS=ySince you're going to use Ethernet to boot your remote client, you must turn on network configuration and, at least, support for the specific network interface card (NIC) on the client:
CONFIG_NETDEVICES=y CONFIG_EEXPRESS_PRO100=yLastly, you must configure the ability to get your IP address via RARP, BOOTP or DHCP:
CONFIG_IP_PNP_RARP=y CONFIG_IP_PNP_BOOTP=y CONFIG_IP_PNP_DHCP=yIf you are supplying your root filesystem via a RAM disk, instead of over NFS (see next section), you'll have to specify the RAM filesystem options:
In the modular kernel, you are allowed to use M to select modules to be loaded on demand by the kernel. Since the modules are not statically bound in the kernel, there must be a place to load the modules from when they are needed. The place provided by Linux to load the kernel modules is the RAM disk. This RAM disk is used only during the boot process and only to provide the kernel modules. Another use of the RAM disk, to provide the remote root filesystem, is outside the scope of this article.
To demonstrate the use of the modular kernel, we can make support for the MINIX filesystem modular, to support a MINIX root filesystem that will be loaded from diskette. To create a modular kernel, the first thing to do is turn on modular support and rebuild the kernel:
In our example, we're going to provide MINIX support via a dynamic module, so we'll make that option an M:
CONFIG_MINIX_FS=MAfter rebuilding the modular kernel and copying it (bzImage) to /tftpboot, we're going to need a way to load it. Tools like the open-source SYSLINUX package provide the means to load the modular kernel and provide the RAM disk. A sample default pxelinux.cfg file might look like:
DEFAULT bzImage APPEND vga=extended initrd=minix.gz root=/dev/fd0 ro PROMPT 1 TIMEOUT 50The configuration file says that the name of the kernel is bzImage, the RAM disk name will be minix.gz, and the client root will be loaded from diskette (/dev/fd0).
We will have to create a RAM disk that has the MINIX module (minix.o) on it, as well as insmod (the command to load the MINIX module), the console device (/dev/console) and linuxrc, the command that gets called when the RAM disk is invoked. (Refer to the initrd.txt file, written by Werner Almesberger and Hans Lerman and distributed as part of the kernel RPM, for a complete description of how RAM disks work in Linux.) To create the custom RAM disk that will mount the MINIX modular dynamically, and MINIX root filesystem from diskette, you must create a file and zero it out using dd:
dd if=/dev/zero of=minixroot bs=1k count=4096
Next, associate the file with a loopback device, /dev/loop0:
losetup /dev/loop0 minixrootCreate an ext2 filesystem:
mkfs.ext2 /dev/loop0Mount the device over a convenient mountpoint, say /mnt:
mount /dev/loop0 /mntCreate some favorite directories:
mkdir /mnt/dev /mnt/lib /mnt/sbinCreate the console device:
mkdev /mnt/dev/console c 5 1Copy the minix.o module into /lib, and sash and insmod into /sbin:
cp /usr/src/linux/fs/minix/minix.o /mnt/lib/minix.o cp /sbin/sash /mnt/sbin/sash cp /sbin/insmod /mnt/sbin/insmodFind out which libraries insmod needs:
ldd /sbin/insmodand copy them to /mnt/lib:
cp /lib/libc.so.6 /mnt/lib cp /lib/ld-linux.so.2 /mnt/libThen create a /mnt/linuxrc file that loads the minix module:
#!/sbin/sash /sbin/insmod /lib/minix.oMake linuxrc executable:
chmod 777 linuxrcUmount /mnt and detach the loopback device:
umount /mnt losetup -d /dev/loop0gzip the minixroot file, and you're ready to boot the client:
gzip minixrootThis example will get you as far as the kernel trying to load its root filesystem from /dev/fd0. To fully test out the example, you'll have to create a MINIX filesystem on the diskette, mount it and copy over at least init and sh, and the libraries they need, and create a console device.
Getting Started with DevOps - Including New Data on IT Performance from Puppet Labs 2015 State of DevOps Report
August 27, 2015
12:00 PM CDT
DevOps represents a profound change from the way most IT departments have traditionally worked: from siloed teams and high-anxiety releases to everyone collaborating on uneventful and more frequent releases of higher-quality code. It doesn't matter how large or small an organization is, or even whether it's historically slow moving or risk averse — there are ways to adopt DevOps sanely, and get measurable results in just weeks.
Free to Linux Journal readers.Register Now!
- Three More Lessons
- Django Models and Migrations
- August 2015 Issue of Linux Journal: Programming
- Hacking a Safe with Bash
- The Controversy Behind Canonical's Intellectual Property Policy
- Secure Server Deployments in Hostile Territory, Part II
- Shashlik - a Tasty New Android Simulator
- Huge Package Overhaul for Debian and Ubuntu
- Embed Linux in Monitoring and Control Systems
- KDE Reveals Plasma Mobile