The Internet in China

If you listen to academic theorists (e.g., Fukuyama 1989), China should be the world's newest and greatest democracy by now; free market economies are, after all, supposed to be incompatible with authoritarian regimes. But China's booming economy has, if anything, solidified the Communist Party's control.
Resources for Further Study

Amnesty International, China 1999. Required reading for anyone wishing to understand the nature and extent of political repression in China.

University of Melbourne, Australia. Chinese Studies WWW Virtual Library.

China Internet Directory. Directory to web sites within China.

China Online. A U.S.-based news and analysis site focusing on business information about China.

Bick-har Yeung, Univ. of Melbourne, Internet and Chinese Studies Resources. An introduction to the Internet in China, including the history of Internet development in China, coding systems for Chinese documents, Chinese search engines, and links to additional resources.

Human Rights in China. New York-based site focusing on political repression in China.

Heidelberg University, Germany.  Internet Guide for China Studies.


Anonymous 1998. "Chinese tunnel through the Net," The Economist, Vol. 346, No. 8054 (February 7, 1998), p. 43.

Anonymous. 2000a.  "China drafts law on Internet-based crimes," China Online October 24, 2000). Available online at htp://

Anonymous. 2000b.  "Did China miss the boat? Business Week (April 17, 2000), p. 28ff. 

Anonymous. 2000c. "The China Internet Consumer Report: New Report Detailing China's Online Users," China Online (November 19, 1998). Available online at

Bell, Duran. 2000. "Guanxi: a nesting of groups," Current Anthropology, Vol. 41, No. 1 (February 2000), available online at

Chen, Judy M. 2000. "IT Multinationals: Willing Partners to Repression in China?" Available online at IT Trade Show -- Judy Chen.html

Dobson, William J. 1998.  " Chinese dissenters get on to the Net," New Republic, Vol. 219, No. 1 (July 6, 1998), pp. 18-21.

Fang, Bay. 1998. "Chinese 'hacktivists' spin a Web of trouble: the regime is unable to control the Internet," U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 125, No. 12 (September 28, 1998), p. 47.

Froomkin, A. Michael. 1996. "The Internet as a Source of Regulatory Arbritrage," in Brian Kahin and Charles Nesson (eds.), Borders in Cyberspace (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1997). Available online at

Fukuyama, Francis. 1992. The end of history and the last man. New York: Avon Books.

Lestz, Michael. 1999. "Why smash the Falun Gong?" Religion in the News, Vol. 2, No. 3. Available online at Gong.htm.

Liu, Melinda, and Kevin Platt. 2000. "China's E-Rebels," Newsweek International (October 2, 2000), p. 52.

Lu, Peter Weigang. 2000. "Internet Developments in China: An Analysis of the CNNIC Survey Report," available online at

McMahon, William J. 1999. "China needs open Internet - Experts," China Online (November 8, 1999). Available online at

Mendels, Pamela. 1996. "Worldwide, Internet restrictions are growing," New York Times (September 10, 1996). Available online at

Niccolai, James. 2000. "China spammers a growing source of e-mail headaches. InfoWorld, Vol. 24, No. 17 (April 24, 2000).

Ribao, Tianjin. 2000. "China Issues New Regulations For Internet Cafes," China Online (January 21, 1999). Available online at

Roberts, Steven V., et al., 1989.  "New diplomacy by Fax Americana," U.S. News and World Report (June 19, 1989), p. 32.

Sautede, Eric. 1996. "The Internet in China: Between and Constable and the Gamekeeper," China Perspectives, No. 4 (March/April 1996), pp. 6-8. Available online at

Sheff, David. 1999. "He's got guanxi!" Wired, Vol. 7, No. 2 (February, 1999). Available online at

Solomon, Jonathan. 2000.  "Business as usual: Effects of the Internet in China," New Scientist, Vol. 165, No. 2234 (April 15, 2000), pp. 34ff.

United States Embassy (Beijing), "PRC Internet: cheaper, more popular, and more Chinese," available online at

Usdin, Steve. 1997.  "China Online: Behind the Great (Fire)Wall," Yahoo Internet Life. Available online at