Custom JSP Actions

Learning shorthand for complicated Java code.
More Advanced Custom Actions

The above is a trivial example of how custom actions work. Custom action tags can do much more than simply print names. For example, objects can connect to a relational database, retrieving (or storing) information without requiring explicit Java inside of our JSPs. Custom actions can also act as iterators or provide us with conditional execution.

In order to perform these more advanced actions, we will take advantage of the fact that a tag handler class can look at the body of a custom action; that is, whatever text might happen to reside between the action's opening and closing tags. We can do all sorts of things with this text, ranging from iteration and conditional execution to asking the JSP engine to evaluate its contents before passing it to the tag handler. It is even possible to nest one tag inside of another, effectively passing values from one action to another.

There are a number of open-source tag libraries, including one provided by the Jakarta project itself, which use these functions to provide a great deal of functionality in a number of tags.

Are Custom Actions a Good Thing?

Custom actions are an extremely powerful tool. They provide a wealth of advantages over putting straight Java code inside of JSPs, encapsulate complex behavior inside of easy-to-remember tags, make it relatively easy for nonprogrammers to work with databases and other nontrivial systems.

But there is a problem with custom actions that can be traced back to the word “custom”. The ability to define your own tags within JSPs is a clever and sophisticated tool and provides a number of benefits to everyone involved in developing a web site. However, part of the beauty of the Web is that it is relatively standardized.

Moreover, custom actions can be used to create an entirely new language written in Java and implemented in tag handler classes. Hans Bergsten, whose book, JavaServer Pages, provides excellent information and instruction in JSPs, pushes this idea to the limit, effectively removing the need for Java within JSPs. However, it disturbs me to see the replacement of a relatively stable and well-known language (Java) with a new, less-known and less battle-tested language (his custom tag libraries).

If I were working at a large corporation that had decided to make a major investment in Java, servlets and JSPs, I would feel quite comfortable using custom actions. Such a company is in a position to create its own tag library that can be used over the life of a web site, defining its own standards for how things work.

But for those of us working outside of a large corporation, or who work with a number of different clients, interoperability is a paramount concern. If each of my clients were to define a different set of custom actions for their sites, I would find myself struggling to remember which tags and attributes I need to use for loops, database access and conditional execution. And as I indicated above, I worry about working with nonprogrammers who already struggle with the idea of learning to embed Java inside of their HTML pages—teaching them two different types of loops (one in Java, and another with custom actions) will undoubtedly lead to some confusion.

A good compromise solution might be the inclusion of a large, standard set of custom actions that will be made part of the JSP specification, much as has been done with JavaBean-related tags. The tag library presented in Bergsten's Java Server Pages is a good start but is only one of many such available libraries. It would be nice to see the JSP community get together on this issue, before we find ourselves faced with dozens of similar but incompatible libraries, some of which will undoubtedly be proprietary.


JSPs are a powerful and quick way to work with server-side Java, particularly for nonprogrammers who don't want to learn a language. Custom actions, particularly when combined with JavaBean components, make it possible to perform complex tasks with a minimum of code. With some forethought, a site can avoid inserting nearly any Java code into their JSPs, relying instead on custom actions and tag libraries.

However, sites (and consultants who use custom actions) should balance the convenience and power of tag libraries with the fact that they are effectively creating a new programming language. If we aren't careful, custom tags will cause a split in the server-side Java community, fracturing it into subcommunities that use different, incompatible libraries.


Reuven M. Lerner owns and runs Lerner Communications Consulting, a firm specializing in web applications and internet technologies. He lives with his wife and daughter in Modi'in, Israel. You can reach him at or via the ATF home page,