Debugging Memory on Linux
Memory can cause bugs and usually unwanted memory behavior. One way is by the usage of freed memory, which is the usage of a memory chunk that the program has already freed. Although this will not necessarily cause problems immediately, something will go wrong once a new memory allocation takes over that same area of memory. As a result, the same memory area is used for two different purposes, which causes unexpected values that may lead to a program core dump if the memory area contains pointer values or offsets.
Another problem is trampling over the preamble to a memory chunk. If the program overwrites the preamble to a memory chunk, the memory management system will possibly fail or act unexpectedly when encountering the corrupted memory chunk.
Sometimes trampling occurs over an adjacent memory chunk, and this might corrupt data. The user might only pick up this kind of error later during program execution with odd values and program behavior.
Similarly, if the management information of a freed memory chunk is wrecked by trampling or unwarranted use, it is highly likely that the memory management system will cause an error.
Usage of the unallocated space in the memory arena could also have an effect. It may be possible to use the memory outside of the heap, which is still within the memory arena. This generally will not cause errors until newly allocated memory uses some of this space. This error could be very difficult to detect because the subsequent memory actions could keep within the heap space.
The most obvious and immediate error is when a program attempts to use memory outside of the memory arena and the program memory scope. This results in a SIGSEGV (segmentation violation fault), and the program will automatically dump core.
The most damaging and trickiest-to-debug memory error is when the stack of the program is corrupted. The program stores local variables, parameters and registers from previous frames and, most importantly, the return address in the stack. So if the stack becomes corrupted, the program may become impossible to debug with a conventional debugger, as the stack frames themselves are rendered useless. Debugging stack memory problems is limited to a few open-source (e.g., libsafe) and proprietary memory debuggers because program execution needs to be altered or enhanced to detect stack memory violations.
There are several ways of attempting to catch and find memory misuses. Unfortunately, some have side effects, such as slower program execution speed and more memory usage, and consequently, they may be unusable in memory-intensive programs.
The buggy program examples used with the following memory debuggers can be seen in Listings 2, 3 and 4.
By default there is an environment variable, MALLOC_CHECK_, that can be set to enable rudimentary debugging with the default malloc. MALLOC_CHECK_ can be set to one, in order to provide some error reporting, or set to two to abort the program whenever any malloc error occurs. The output can be cryptic because the debug mode reports problem areas as addresses rather than readable symbols. As a result, it is a good idea to have a debugger on hand to determine where in the program these errors are occurring. The following is an example using default memory debugging:
<home>$ MALLOC_CHECK_=1 ./mytest00 malloc: using debugging hooks hello Linux users free(): invalid pointer 0x80496d0 hello again free(): invalid pointer 0x80496d0 realloc(): invalid pointer 0x80496d0 malloc: top chunk is corrupt hello there
The output indicates the problem in mytest00.c, line 8 (Listing 2), where the strcpy() function overflows and corrupts the memory chunk pointed to by msg. The subsequent debugging messages are because of this corruption.
There are several excellent open-source memory tools available (see sidebar for a list). Each implementation differs in memory bug coverage, output and interaction.
Electric Fence is one tool that is simple to use. The library performs several memory checks and when encountering an error, stops the program. This usually results in a core dump, which the user then can investigate with a debugger. Electric Fence is most useful when employed within a debugger, such as the GNU debugger (GDB). When Electric Fence stops the program, GDB regains control at the exact location in the program where the error occurred (see Listing 5).
This example output shows the test built with the Electric Fence library executing under GDB. The very first violation at mytest00.c line 8 results in a SIGSEGV. When examining the stack trace provided by GDB, the user can identify the problem location.
libsafe is used to check a number of possible stack frame boundary violations limited to a few C functions (strcpy, strcat, getwd, gets, scanf, vscanf, fscanf, realpath, sprintf and vsprintf).
The libsafe example output is terse. As soon as a stack error occurs, libsafe displays an error and terminates the program. However, libsafe sends the details of the actual error to various e-mail recipients. Granted, this is a convoluted way of reporting the error, but users primarily use libsafe to detect attempted security breaches that exploit buffer overflow. With a bit of editing, a developer can enhance the libsafe code to report messages that are more informative. Another option is to execute the program in GDB and set a breakpoint on _libsafe_die(), which is hit as soon as a stack violation is detected by libsafe. In the following example libsafe detects stack trampling caused by strcpy() in line 8 of mytest01.c (Listing 3):
<home>$ LD_PRELOAD=/lib/libsafe.so.1.3 ./mytest01 Detected an attempt to write across stack boundary. Terminating mytest01. Null message body; hope that's ok # Email is the sent with the following subject header libsafe violation for /tmp/mytest01, pid=27265; overflow caused by strcpy()
debauch limits its output to contain addresses instead of symbols, which makes it necessary to be used with a debugger. debauch has special capabilities that users can activate specifically for GDB use. These capabilities allow better tracking of memory allocation and deallocation calls. debauch is thorough and detects and recovers from many of the memory errors (see Listing 6).
memprof's main feature is the GUI interface, which makes it easy to understand and to see where memory leaks occur. It has fairly powerful capabilities due to the fact that it utilizes functions that GDB uses to control processes via the binary file descriptor (BFD) library. Figure 3 shows that memprof has detected the leak in the function alloc_two() in mytest02.c.
Apart from open-source memory tools, several proprietary tools are available that provide graphical user interfaces and more thorough checks than open-source versions (see sidebar for a list of proprietary memory tools).
Possibly, the last option is to write your own memory handling functions. This might be useful in becoming familiar with memory management or providing performance enhancement due to your particular needs, such a quick allocation and deallocation of large memory areas.
Debugging memory problems is important, for not only program stability, but security as well. There are several memory debuggers available for Linux, each with their own particular set of capabilities and usage criteria. The best approach is to test a program with more than one of these memory debuggers with a debugger such as GDB, as the combined power may detect a wider range of memory problems.
Practical Task Scheduling Deployment
July 20, 2016 12:00 pm CDT
One of the best things about the UNIX environment (aside from being stable and efficient) is the vast array of software tools available to help you do your job. Traditionally, a UNIX tool does only one thing, but does that one thing very well. For example, grep is very easy to use and can search vast amounts of data quickly. The find tool can find a particular file or files based on all kinds of criteria. It's pretty easy to string these tools together to build even more powerful tools, such as a tool that finds all of the .log files in the /home directory and searches each one for a particular entry. This erector-set mentality allows UNIX system administrators to seem to always have the right tool for the job.
Cron traditionally has been considered another such a tool for job scheduling, but is it enough? This webinar considers that very question. The first part builds on a previous Geek Guide, Beyond Cron, and briefly describes how to know when it might be time to consider upgrading your job scheduling infrastructure. The second part presents an actual planning and implementation framework.
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