Boot with GRUB

Especially useful for multiboot, partitioned systems, GRUB offers flexibility and convenience for startup.
Demonstrating GRUB

To see how GRUB may be used to boot a multitude of different operating systems, consider this example setup:

First Hard Disk (SCSI, Linux /dev/sda): 1st primary partition: Win982nd primary partition: Linux-Slackware3rd primary partition: Linux-Debian4th primary partition: Linux SwapSecond Hard Disk (SCSI, Linux /dev/sdb)1st primary partition: FreeBSD2nd primary partition: OpenBSD3rd primary partition: BeOS

Note that although GRUB and Linux are capable of dealing with installations in extended partitions, here we show a preference for using primary partitions whenever possible. Filesystems in primary partitions are often mountable by other operating systems, whereas cross-OS mounting filesystems in extended partitions is often not supported.

This system has two hard disks with six different operating systems using seven partitions. As you probably know, each OS has its own nomenclature for naming devices and partitions. For example, the Slackware installation would be known to Linux as /dev/sda2 (with swap on /dev/sda4), while FreeBSD would recognize its filesystem on /dev/da1s1a. Alternatively, if the system were configured with IDE hard disks, Slackware would be on /dev/hda2, and FreeBSD would refer to its root directory on /dev/ad1s1a. You get large helpings of this alphabet soup whenever maintaining any multiboot setup.

Since GRUB also needs to be capable of loading any of these systems, it has its own OS-neutral naming conventions for referring to devices. Hard disks are all hd, floppy disks are fd, device numbering starts from zero, partition numbering starts from zero and complete device names are enclosed in parentheses.

With these naming rules, the floppy disk is (fd0), the Win98 partition is (hd0,0), and GRUB recognizes the Slackware and Debian partitions respectively as (hd0,1) for slackware and (hd0,2) for debian.

The BSDs further subdivide their own partitions (or “slices” in BSD terms), and GRUB would refer to the root mount for the FreeBSD system on (hd1,0,a).

Okay, ready to give GRUB a taste? Slide the GRUB floppy in the drive and reboot your system (with your system's BIOS configured to boot from A: drive). You should see GRUB's terse boot messages and then find yourself in the GRUB command-line environment as shown in Figure 1.

To start, let's boot Slackware. Enter the following commands at the grub prompt:

grub> root (hd0,1)
grub> kernel /vmlinuz root=/dev/sda2 ro vga=791
grub> boot

Badda-bing, badda-boom, that postage-stamp-sized Tux appears in the upper-left corner of your screen (yes, Slackware is configured to use the framebuffer device), and Linux bootstraps its jolly way into glorious being.

Another example. Reboot the system again with the GRUB floppy, and enter the following commands at the grub prompt:

grub> rootnoverify (hd0,0)
grub> makeactive
grub> chainloader +1
grub> boot

Now your screen turns into a vague blue cloud, and you think you have made some horrible mistake. Then you realize it's only Windows and you remind yourself to expunge this partition one day soon.

Let's take a closer look at these examples. In the Slackware boot, we first used the GRUB root command to specify the device for GRUB to access. If the device has a filesystem recognized by GRUB (that is, one of ext2fs, reiser, ffs, etc.), it attempts to mount it and get its partition information, then reports its success following the command. Thus, you would see the following command/response dialog on your screen:

grub> root (hd0,1)
Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0x83

Next, we used the GRUB kernel command to specify the boot image for GRUB to load. The argument to the kernel command is the filename of the boot image relative to the device specified by the root command above. The kernel image file can also be specified in explicit (device)/filename terms as follows:

grub> kernel (hd0,1)/vmlinuz
The kernel command gives you great flexibility for specifying the boot image you wish to load. For example, if we saved a previous version of a kernel to the file /vmlinuz.old, we could specify it with this command (which shows GRUB's response):
grub> kernel /vmlinuz.old root=/dev/sda2 ro vga=ask
[Linux-bzImage, setup=0xe00, size=0xfad30]
The arguments following the name of the boot image are passed to the target kernel and aren't related to GRUB. For Linux, these kernel arguments are pretty much what you would specify them to be in lilo.conf. In our example, we tell the kernel what device to mount for the root partition (root=/dev/sda2 ro), using the device nomenclature expected by Linux. Note here that we also use the ro flag to mount the root filesystem read-only initially while it performs its filesystem check. The other kernel argument in our example simply demonstrates setting another kernel variable (vga=791) to use a particular vga mode for the framebuffer display.

Finally, the last command is grub> boot. The kernel image specified is now loaded and sent rolling down the royal road to bootdom.

The second example, using Win98, demonstrates the use of GRUB's chain-loading mechanism. This method of booting loads the target OS's own boot-chain-loader rather than a kernel image of the OS. In this instance, we specified:

grub> rootnoverify (hd0,0)
grub> chainloader +1

First, the rootnoverify command is for OS filesystems not specifically recognized by GRUB, so that GRUB will not try to mount the partition. Next, the chainloader command will use the first sector of the partition of device (hd0,0) and attempt to boot whatever it finds there. This is a common means of booting OSes that install their own boot loaders in the first sector of the partition where they are installed (this is sometimes called the partition boot sector or PBR).

Finally, the makeactive command sets the active flag in the partition table for the device specified by the root command, as some operating systems, like Win98, require.

The GRUB command line is easy and fun, and you should boot the different OSes on your system a few times to get the hang of it. While you are testing, be sure to keep any notes specific to getting your particular kernels successfully loaded. This information will be useful later when you configure the menu system of GRUB to perform these command-line steps automatically.

But before we leave the command line, here are a few more GRUB commands to look at.

The help command will display a list of the 40 or so commands available in GRUB. Typing the name a particular command after help will produce on-line help for that particular command. So grub> help kernel will tell you all about using the kernel command.

The cat command can be used to view the contents of a file. For example, grub> cat (hd0,2)/etc/fstab will show the contents of the /etc/fstab file in the Debian installation. This is a very handy way of pulling out system configuration information if your normal boot loader gets whacked. Note also as you are using the GRUB command line that, like bash, up and down arrows will scroll through command history, and a tab will complete the name of a GRUB command or filename.

Finally, you can call up a specific menu interface with the configfile command as in:

grub> configfile (fd0)/boot/grub/menu.lst

This will switch GRUB into its menu mode with an interface defined by the file, menu.lst. We haven't created that file yet, but—look out, segue coming!—that's exactly what we will do next.



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Aky's picture

Thanks for sharing your experience with us. Helps me in my quest of migrating from lilo.
Also, this part made my day: "Now your screen turns into a vague blue cloud, and you think you have made some horrible mistake. Then you realize it's only Windows and you remind yourself to expunge this partition one day soon." :-D

Cannot boot into RHEL5 after reinstalling windows XP SP3

anyl's picture

I used to have two Operating system Windows XP and RHEL5 in my system. it was working fine but after reinstalling Windows XP i could not boot into the RHEL5. Can any one tell me the solution how can i get back my RHEL5.I can see the partition assigned for RHEL5 at disk management.

Linux Grub! NEED HELP!

Anonymous's picture

I NEED HELP!!! I have Linux grub installed and I can't get past the boot up screen! It checks the system and at the end it has this: #_(blinking). What do I do!? Someone help!

blicking bootup screen

J et's picture


I had this problem too, I solved it by going into the BIOS and then making sure that the boot options list that my hard disk is top priority.

Hope this helps.


unable to boot Vista after installing linux

MarcoG's picture


I just installed the new version of Fedora on my laptop, on which originally there was only one partion with Vista before. I resized the Vista partition and installed Linux.
Linux works fine, but when I try to boot Vista, it opens the sistem recovery options menu, without being able to do anything. After the end of each option it boots again, giving the two options between linux and "other" and if I choose "other" it goes back to the recovery menu. Do you have any suggestions? I back-up everything I had on the Vista partition, but don't have with me the Vista installation cd at the moment.

Thank you



mozebyciu's picture

I have changed disks from basic to dynamic in my vista
then after rebooting got grub command line (i have managed to get it boot vista) but..i can only access disc C: all other partitions (or volumes after change to dynamic) are gone and i am not sure how to get them back. anyone can help?

GRUB error

Wasiuizzaman's picture

Hi all

I have Lenovo laptop. It has two OS, 1 is Window XP and other is Fedora. By default run Windows XP. These combinations are performing well. But today I have seen a problem. When my laptop is turning on it show GRUB> in black background screen. I didn’t do anything except my laptop turn off using power switch. Is there any solution that I skip it and access XP or Fedora OS. Please help me as soon as possible.

Thanks Russell

Not Good

Mitch Frazier's picture

This is probably not good. First, you shouldn't shutdown your computer by turning off the power switch, you should tell the O/S (XP or Fedora) to shutdown the system and let the O/S turn off the power when it's through with its shutdown procedure. If for some reason the shutdown hangs, then, and only then, use the power switch.

That said, it sounds like your grub installation got damaged somehow, which probably means your Fedora installation is damaged but that your Windows installation is ok. First, try to boot Windows. At the grub prompt do:

grub> root (hd0, PRESS-THE-TAB-KEY

This should show you the partitions that you have, something like:

 Partition num: 0, Filesystem type is XXXX, partition type YYYY
 Partition num: 1, Filesystem type is XXXX, partition type YYYY

You should see one whose type is ntfs, that's the Windows partition. Use it's partition number and do:

grub> rootnoverify (hd0,YOUR-WINDOWS-PARTITION-NUMBER)
grub> makeactive
grub> chainloader +1
grub> boot

That will hopefully boot you into Windows.

Fedora may be a bit trickier since it probably has a damaged file system. In the above list of partitions, find the first partition that's not ntfs and assume that's your Linux partition, then do:

grub> setup (hd0)

If that by chance succeeds, reboot the system and see if you get the normal grub screen, if you do, try booting Fedora. If it doesn't succeed or if it does but it won't boot, and it probably won't, then you're going to have to boot from a Rescue CD or Live CD and attempt to repair your Linux install. The exact steps are going to depend on your exact configuration, but you want to try to run fsck on your Linux partitions and possibly re-install damaged files from your backup (you do have a backup, right?).

Mitch Frazier is an Associate Editor for Linux Journal.


Anonymous's picture


Fedora 7 grub setup successful

Anonymous's picture

Thanks for the two line fix! After my RAID mirror degraded with the loss of one drive, the other drive only booted to the grub> prompt. By reading your section on Fedora, I was able to reboot and now it will autoboot to Fedora again. Time saved, lesson learned. Thanks again...


File Type Unknown

Anonymous's picture

Hello Sir Mitch,

I have installed Linux EL4 64 bit over Windows Xp on the same hard disk and as expected i wasnt able to boot windows XP. After reading your comment i tried grub> root (hd0, PRESS-THE-TAB-KEY
it is showing File tyoe is unkonwn for windows partitions.

Need YOur help

You can revert back to me on



Mitch Frazier's picture

Try changing the partition type of the your NTFS partition to the correct type using fdisk or some other tool. You can also try running ntfsfix on the partition.

Mitch Frazier is an Associate Editor for Linux Journal.

Grub Permission

Blackaddar's picture

I installed a dual-boot system on my Dell with Ubuntu Linux and Windows XP. Linux is installed on a second external Hard drive.

I can get into the menu.lst file in the linux test editor, but an
unable to change the file, due to lack of permission.

This is mystifing, since I am the only user and the Administor of the Laptop.

How can I get permission to edit this file?

Any help appreciated.

Michael B. Harris
Linux user #1063


Anonymous's picture

enable root account
sudo passwd root
then login as root
u will get full permission

try sudo

Anonymous's picture

try at the term:
sudo gedit
sudo nano

Edit File

Mitch Frazier's picture

I assume that when you say Administrator you mean root. You have to be logged in or running the editor as root. If that is the case and you can't save the file then make sure that the file is writable. Go to the directory where the file is and run "chmod +w menu.lst" from a command/shell prompt. If you still can't save the file then it could be that the partition is mounted read-only, but that seems unlikely.

I suppose another possibility might be that you have some more sophisticated Linux security system installed, that doesn't make root quite as super of a super-user, but that also seems unlikely.

Mitch Frazier is an Associate Editor for Linux Journal.


Anonymous's picture

hey all..can you help me REMOVE grub loader from my system without removing Linux..i want windows to be the default loader or whatever..


Anonymous's picture


Hope this may solve your problem

Aamir Shahzad


AS prefabrik's picture

Great article thanks. Written in 2001 and yet here we are still referring to it. If the author is reading this I would be curious to know how Linux is used in West Africa.

tlamelo, sounds like a GRUB config error - my advice is to burn a copy of "System rescue CD",

It works as a Linux live cd, This has grub on it and will let you fix your GRUB install. Note the "chainloader +1" and "make active" bit in the artcile example for Win98 applies to XP and Vista too.

Booting issue

Raj's picture

Hai every one...
When i startup my linux server it shows that /raj(mount point direcotry) is checking filesystem automatically enter into mainitaince mode(repair-system) prompt..I solved this problem using command fsck /dev/sdb5 after i tried to reboot the system it was not able to bootup my linux server.It's showing into Grub> prompt...can any one give solution for this

böcek ilaçlama

böcek ilaçlama's picture

You have just saved my beloved Tux. I am no good on managing boot loader, and often end with screwed up hard disk. :)

Great Article and reply to tlamelo

Imran Chaudhry's picture

Great article thanks. Written in 2001 and yet here we are still referring to it. If the author is reading this I would be curious to know how Linux is used in West Africa.

tlamelo, sounds like a GRUB config error - my advice is to burn a copy of "System rescue CD",

It works as a Linux live cd, This has grub on it and will let you fix your GRUB install. Note the "chainloader +1" and "make active" bit in the artcile example for Win98 applies to XP and Vista too.

booting windows with grub result to this

tlamelo's picture

when i follow all your steps in using grub in windows vista i get "Booting 'Windows vista'

vista loader 2.0.0

guys what shall i do, i have used windows vista for some time but the problem is that it failed me on the way so i decided to install xp it failed because it cant find the harddrive,i tried linux also failed then how did i get grub because linux failed to install too.i reinstalled windows vista ultimate again it installed well and asked for the administrator i entered the password and computer name but when it tried to boot for the last time it gave me this "booting 'windows vista'
vista loader 2.0.0

fallback 1
find --set-root /bootmgr

error 17: file not found
booting 'windows NT/2000/XP'

fallback 2
find -- set-root /ntldr

error 17: file not found
booting 'Enter Command Line'

boot failed! Press any key to enter command line."

when i press anykey it give me "GRUBDOS 0.4.2 (2007-03-02, memory:639k / 502m, code end: 0x4013c

[minimal BASH-LIKE LINE EDITING IS SUPPORTED. FOR THE FIRST WORD, tab lists possible command completions. anywhere else tab lists the posible completions of a device/filename. ESC at any time exits.]


when i press esc i get windows vista, windows NT/2000/XP AND ENTER COmmand line

this comes in a black screen with some options at the bottom such arrows to highlight, press ENTER to boot the selected OS, 'e' to edit the commands before booting, 'c' for a command -line.

with all this guys what can i do to remove linux and XP which i never succeded to install and remain with only my vista. for the time being nothing works.THANK YOU IN ADVANCE

Reformat that Hard Drive!

Anonymous's picture

Reformat that Hard Drive! Sounds like a mess!

grub bios

sikis's picture

If you're working with Linux distributions, especially the things you need to know grub. How important is bios in windows linux grub is important

Linux vs centos grub

sikis's picture

Thank document in good time grub error because CentOS gold lost my system many times, but the group recognized that this problem is very low...

How to install the grub on xp(1st HD) and Ubuntu(2nd HD)

Joli's picture

Please help.
I have Xp installed on the master hard drive and the ubuntu on the 2nd hard dive. The 1st hard dive got infected by viruses and wiped ou everything and reintall XP without touching the 2nd hard drive (the slave HD). Now I have my XP runnig but i can't see the ubuntu anywhere, neither I see the second hard dive. I was told to install the grub but i don't know how to proceed . can somebody help/ please I am still abeginner in learning ubuntu I have no clue at all please be specific in your answers

Hey can any one help me to

Anonymous's picture

Hey can any one help me to make bootable CD for my application in linux having kernel of 10MB and initrd.gz as 95Mb. my email-id is

Thanks in advance

From info grub : $

Anonymous's picture

From info grub :

$ mkdir iso

Make a directory for GRUB:

$ mkdir -p iso/boot/grub

Copy the file `stage2_eltorito':

$ cp /usr/lib/grub/i386-pc/stage2_eltorito iso/boot/grub

If desired, make the config file `menu.lst' under `iso/boot/grub'
(*note Configuration::), and copy any files and directories for the
disc to the directory `iso/'.

Finally, make a ISO9660 image file like this:

$ mkisofs -R -b boot/grub/stage2_eltorito -no-emul-boot \
-boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table -o grub.iso iso


Anonymous's picture

My son has been messing around with the computer
When i´m starting it ,the message tells me at first that it´s installing grub and then there´s error 17.
I can´t use the computer ,what´s the solution?

Grub Error 17 Or Something Recovery

Anonymous's picture

Yes I have the same problem, Minimal Bash-Like (Something Like that)... Anyway i will get to the point... it is because your son has installed linux onto your windows vista or xp computer... If you try recovery disk it will not work or if you have an acer computer it still will not work if you press Alt + F10, as the technicians if you ring up they will tell you to try recoverying the computer but the easiest way is to grab the Cd of the linux and it will take a while to load... then press "LIVE CD", go to the partition editior and try to recover if it still does not work then download this onto a usb and press F12, when the computer starts ( NOT WHEN GRUB IS ON )... Here is the link that you need to extract and move the file onto the usb on another computer (Library or Friends).... Here It Is:

Then Press Download... I had the same problem and it worked like that... if problem still happens buy a later edition of windows vista and put the computer into your room because if your son still has the disk then things can get a little nifty on the new computer because he only needs to press F12 and startup the disk and install it and delete partitions in the live cd...

Well hope i helped...

GRUB on Serial Console

Marian Marinov's picture

First let me say that this is a great article.

However I have commonly seen people who are unable to configure grub for working on serial console and they tend to argue that this is even possible.

Here is a simple way how you can configure GRUB to work on the serial console:

First you need to specify the serial port and the options for this port:

serial --unit=0 --speed=9600

Valid options for serial are:
[--unit=unit] [--port=port] [--speed=speed] [--word=word] [--parity=parity] [--stop=stop] [--device=dev]

Unit is usually 0-3 as com1 trough com4.

Second you have to setup the terminal for this port:
terminal --timeout=3 serial console

Valid options for terminal are:
[--dumb] [--no-echo] [--no-edit] [--timeout=secs] [--lines=lines] [--silent] [console] [serial] [hercules]


Grub boot floppy doesn't work - gets kernel panic

Larry's picture

I use Kubuntu Gutsy with root partition on sata /dev/sda1 and /home on /dev/sda5.
When I issue the boot command at grub prompt, computer locks up after these two lines:

Please append a correct "root=" boot option; here the available partitions
Kernel panic - not syncing: VFS: Unable to mount root fs on unknown-block(8,3)

When I prepare the floppy and
sudo cp -pPv /usr/lib/grub/i386-pc/stage* /media/floppy/boot/grub
the files state1 and stage2 copy over properly but stage2_eltorito copies over as stage2-e.
I presume this truncation is because of the msdos format. Should I try vfat or does it not matter?

When I boot with the grub floppy, stage2 runs and I get a grub prompt.
I then issue: "root (hd0,0)"
but this does not give the expected informational message like
"Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0x83".

I then issue: "kernel (hd0,0/boot/vmlinuz)" and "boot"
and the system appears to start but ends up in the kernel panic.

Does the fact my drives are sata make any difference? I tried "root (sd0,0)" but got an error.

My vmlinuz is a soft link to vmlinuz-2.6.22-14-generic in /boot and I tried the longer name many times but got tired of typing it.

I am able to view a file with something like "cat (hd0,0)/etc/fstab"

Since grub is installed on this system it can boot normally without a grub floppy but I'm testing the process on this computer.

Something is missing in my setup - can anyone please help me find it?


You need SATA Driver

Anonymous's picture

You need SATA Driver sata_nv.

Grub Menu Not Coming up

Kunjal's picture

Hi ,

I had Windows Vista on my Laptop with 120 GB HDD Capacity.
Windows partition is of 15 GB. I installed Red Hat Linux with Dual bootloader in Next 15 Gb. The other space on Hard drive was free. I formatted 20 GB for my work on Windows.
Now when i restart , i dont get the Grub Menu and it shows me prompt.
If i give few commands i can get into both of this operating system but the default menu to select any operating system has vanished.

Any help on this is highly appreciated.

Thank You,

How about Windows Vista?

Anonymous's picture

Can GRUB work together with Windows Vista? Vista has a new bootloader and do not use Boor.ini. I tried this on a Vista machine where the disk is a SATA disk, and it did not work. I was using Ubunto Linux to do the job for me.

Yes it works fine.

Kunjal's picture

Hi ,

Yes it workds fine no problem at all. But if you make changes like formatting a free space in hard drive you may loose control of either operating system. also you will have to learn grub commands to boot any operating system.

Thank You,

Great info - Worked first time

lynnevan's picture

When FC3 came along, they said you couldn't make a boot floppy anymore because vmlinuz was too big. I've been using mkiso & burning boot CDs (as backup 'cause you never know). But floppys are so much easier. Even the iso using stage2_eltorito + grub was never bigger than 400K, so why couldn't you use a floppy anymore? Finally followed your recipe w/ the floppy and worked first time: xp, suse & centos. Zero problems. This is one of those rare items that you keep handy forever.
Thanks and thanks again!!

Thank's for the info

Aji Setiabudi's picture

You have just saved my beloved Tux. I am no good on managing boot loader, and often end with screwed up hard disk. :)

xp&fc5 reboot and enter grub

ayhan's picture

hi i have a proble i installed xp and thenfedero core 5.0 i used sometimes but i didnot look at linux since 2 öonth and today when i restart my machine it enters grub i did not remember grub files..and i have alot off importad info..
how can i get rid of this grub thanks

Can't make the floppy, can't boot XP

Sparklight's picture

1. Making the floppy EXACTLY per your instructions: grub "setup" command checks for stage1, yes; stage2, yes; fat_stage1_5: no - and then it installs and reports success. Afterward there is still no fat_stage1_5 on the floppy. That's if I unmounted the floppy. If I didn't unmount the floppy before running grub it complains, "Error 31, File is not sector aligned." In either case, booting the floppy gets me the word
and then no further action.

I'm using Foresight Linux, a distant derivative of Red Hat.

2. So I tried using the grub that is already installed on my Foresight partition, just to try stuff out.
> rootnoverify (hd0,0) // that's my Windows XP partition
> makeactive
> chainloader +1
> boot
NTLDR menu shows up, I pick main Windows. Boot process gets quite far along. Then just after the keyboard lights flash and a mouse cursor would normaly appear, I get a blue terminal screen:
"AUTOCHECK program not found, skipping autocheck"
and then in a moment, on a black screen:
"0x0000021a system fatal error..." and other stuff I can't see because it lasts half a second.
And then a spontaneous reboot.

Anybody seen this one? BTW, this Windows boots fine via Norton's BootMagic; it was to get around BootMagic problems that I was trying to use grub to begin with.

triple boot with grub

new to linux - ubuntu's picture

Hello, I found this very helpfull, but I need to do one more thing with grub, but how???

first of all I have 3 OS-s (2 of them are win xp and third is Ubuntu 6.06)

*How to hide one xp partition from another with grub?
**Is it possible to do so if I have only one hard disk?

fedora core 6 test1 instal problem

somendra's picture

I've loaded win-xp2 on first partition then leave 2 partitions for fat32 then on free space I install fedora core 6 test1 but I loaded grub on first boot sector of /boot partition now my system loads win-xp2 only how can I boot fedora now. and I want to configure my Grub on MBR, so what I have to do now.

just do it...

Ravi's picture

by using same CDs of FC6 upgrade that GRUB i.e grand unified boot loader it loads GRUB and ur both OS will works fine....

install on first boot sector of a partition

Pascal Valois's picture

when doing this, you rely on the boot sector of the bootable disk to hop to grub.

in fact, the basic boot sector search for the active partition, and then load the boot sector of it to ensure the OS boot.

in your case, using windows, with the fdisk tool, make your /boot linux partition bootable (active).

then reboot, and it should works


Atiq's picture

I m really thankfull to you ... coz due to this i saved lots of my important data... thanks.

tri-boot with RH, XP, and Ubuntu?

Anonymous's picture

dual boot with RH, XP, no problem. boot into grub and it worked. with all the hype in the office about ubuntu, i attempted and failed to tri-boot the machine. RH>Grub, Ubuntu>LILO, anyone try to throw a Debian in the mix?

thanks in advance... end up reinstalling RH because Ubuntu screwed my partition already :(

problm in installing GURB

pkg's picture

after installing UBUNTU
it com restarts & it writes "grub is loding please wait..."
and after that it has taken hours but nothing is working after word.
winXP is also not working

reinstall ur grub if nt

Anonymous's picture

reinstall ur grub
if nt able to load windows u must write the code snippet


Anonymous's picture

I'd just like to say thank you very very much for this tutorial. It explained the situation much better than anything else I found online, including GRUB's own paltry documentation. My computer now boots again, and I am happy. Make sure this page never 404s.

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