Inner Workings of WANPIPE
WANs, by their nature, are quite complicated. There are usually several players, including one or more Telcos, often a public network provider and often a separate ISP that adds to the confusion. The inevitable line teething problems and ongoing line debugging can often denigrate into futile finger-pointing exercises.
For this reason, a major part of the WANPIPE development has been devoted to debugging. Sangoma's philosophy is to provide customers with enough debugging information so that the customers can solve most problems by themselves. Furthermore, if support is necessary, Sangoma tech support must have enough information to solve the problem remotely.
Each WAN protocol has its own debugging utility that is used to determine the status of the driver and physical line, obtain protocol state and statistics, as well as raw and interpreted line traces. The data transfer involved in the monitors is UDP-based. Remote systems can be debugged via the Internet, without logging into the user system, while system security can be tightly managed. UDP calls are OS-independent, meaning that a remote Linux machine can debug a WANPIPE card running in a FreeBSD or Windows machine.
Since system security is an important issue, the UDP debugging commands can be turned off by setting the UDPPORT to 0, or better yet, by setting the TTL (time to live) value to a small one. By setting the TTL value to one, for example, only users that are logged into the machine or located in front of the first router will be able to operate the debugger. The TTL and UDPPORT values are configurable in the WANPIPE configuration file.
A current list of monitors and typical commands is given in Table 3. Under Windows, X and other graphic environments, the complicated command lines are replaced by simple GUI applications.
The driver receives management requests via the UDP/IP stack. All received requests are then forwarded into a low priority queue. A low priority thread handles requests and sends the results back up the stack, to the originating IP address. UDP debug requests can also come from the network where the request is sent back through the line. Management connections through the network interface are treated differently from traffic from “above”. Only statistics are available through the network, while access from above allows the user to also reconfigure, test and set up the CSU/DSU and run line traces.
The proc file system is a memory mapped virtual directory structure that is used to provide driver and kernel information. Management systems, such as SNMP, use the proc file systems to obtain kernel/driver statistics and states. The WANPIPE driver binds into the proc file system by setting up /proc/net/wanrouter directory. This directory contains virtual files for each WANPIPE device. WANPIPE configuration and statistics can be obtained by reading/opening supported /proc files. To display tx, rx and error statistics for, say, the wanpipe1 device, use this command: cat /proc/net/wanrouter/wanpipe1
All WANPIPE events are logged via the syslog dæmon, in the /var/log/messages file. Note, syslog can be reconfigured to forward messages to a different location. To view the messages log continuously, execute: tail -f /var/log/messages.
Nenad Corbic, senior data communications specialist—Heading the Linux development team at Sangoma, Nenad works with senior management to ensure Sangoma's Linux customers are provided with innovative wide area network (WAN) communications technology. Nenad is responsible for WANPIPE device driver design and development, WANPIPE quality assurance, new product development and third-level customer/developer support. He also has interests in the Linux routing project and embedded Linux development. Nenad holds a BEng in Computer Engineering from Ryerson Polytechnic University in Toronto.
David Mandelstam, chief technology officer—Spearheading Sangoma's growth since inception, David remains committed to developing and improving technology for wide area network (WAN) communications. As chief technology officer and founder of Sangoma, David directs the technology strategy and corporate research activities, managing development of new product technologies and overseeing the entire manufacturing cycle. David holds a BSc in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa, an MSc in Aerodynamics from the Cranfield Institute of Technology in the United Kingdom and a BComm from the University of South Africa.
Practical Task Scheduling Deployment
One of the best things about the UNIX environment (aside from being stable and efficient) is the vast array of software tools available to help you do your job. Traditionally, a UNIX tool does only one thing, but does that one thing very well. For example, grep is very easy to use and can search vast amounts of data quickly. The find tool can find a particular file or files based on all kinds of criteria. It's pretty easy to string these tools together to build even more powerful tools, such as a tool that finds all of the .log files in the /home directory and searches each one for a particular entry. This erector-set mentality allows UNIX system administrators to seem to always have the right tool for the job.
Cron traditionally has been considered another such a tool for job scheduling, but is it enough? This webinar considers that very question. The first part builds on a previous Geek Guide, Beyond Cron, and briefly describes how to know when it might be time to consider upgrading your job scheduling infrastructure. The second part presents an actual planning and implementation framework.
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