One World, One Processor?
One of the great advantages of Linux is that it runs on practically any processor you can find. Most competing flavors of UNIX are limited to a single CPU architecture. But in the server world, processor choices are diminishing. While this may not hurt Linux, it certainly doesn't help. These changes have been driven by Intel, which would love to turn the server market into a clone of the PC market, with hundreds of vendors selling similar systems based on Intel silicon.
Although far more PCs than servers are sold each year, the revenue from these two markets is actually similar, since servers are much more expensive, and have higher profit margins. So if Intel can grab its typical share of those profits (that is, most of them), it would be a great coup for the company.
So far, this strategy is off to a great start. In 1998, Intel launched a one-two punch, introducing its first Xeon processors designed exclusively for servers and disclosing the design of its Itanium processor for very large servers. With the exception of Sun, all major server vendors quickly adopted a two-track strategy, offering customers the choice of either Intel-based systems or systems using in-house RISC processors. The problem is that customers, for the most part, have been choosing the Intel-based systems, which use standard operating systems (Windows 2000 or Linux) and offer compatibility with systems from a variety of vendors. The RISC systems tend to be more expensive and rely on proprietary UNIX operating systems. Intel now holds nearly all of the market for low-cost servers (under $10,000) and more than half of the market for more expensive systems.
This market shift has left the RISC vendors with less revenue to support their processor lines. During the same period, high-end microprocessor designs have become more complex, requiring a greater investment to develop new products. With these two trends moving in opposite directions, Compaq, HP and SGI have slowed the pace of their RISC architectures (Alpha, PA-RISC and MIPS, respectively) to the point that they have fallen behind Xeon in performance on many key applications. This decline has caused a downward spiral in sale for the RISC vendors.
As a result, HP and SGI have already announced they will eventually discontinue their RISC lines, and Compaq is likely to follow suit. IBM continues to invest in its PowerPC line, but the bulk of the company's servers rely on Intel processors. At the recent Microprocessor Forum, the CPU industry's premiere event, IBM was the only one of these four companies to present a paper on a future RISC processor.
Sun has avoided this slippery slope by focusing exclusively on its SPARC/Solaris platform, and the company has never been healthier. But even with about 20% market share for servers above $10,000, the company is having problems developing new processors. It recently rolled out its UltraSparc-3 processor nearly two years behind schedule and announced an 18- to 24-month delay in its plans for UltraSparc-4 and UltraSparc-5. Intel solves this problem by leveraging the same processor designs between its PC line and its server line. Thus, it can invest far more than any other company in the design of its processors. As CPU designs become more complex, this level of investment is needed to maintain competitiveness.
Even as Intel dominates the processor market, it splits the market between two different architectures: Xeon and Itanium. But so far, Itanium has been a dud. After many delays, the new processor should finally appear in systems over the next few months. But sources indicate its performance is disappointing, and most vendors are sticking with Xeon. Intel's new Pentium IV technology will appear in the Xeon line in early 2001, giving that line a further boost. Meanwhile, Itanium's hopes are pinned on a next-generation version that isn't likely to appear until 2002. Until then, Itanium will be a niche player.
AMD is gearing up to push its Athlon processor into the server market. If AMD succeeds, this move will put pressure on Intel to cut Xeon's price and boost its performance, much as the company was forced to react to Athlon in the PC market this year. Since Athlon and Xeon both use the same x86 instruction set, AMD's entry will strengthen that platform and make it even more successful than it is today.
Thus, for the next few years, Xeon and compatible processors will power the vast majority of servers. This convergence benefits Microsoft, which is focused exclusively on that platform, and takes away one of Linux's selling points. Linux must go head-to-head with Microsoft in features and performance to continue its gains in the server market.
Practical Task Scheduling Deployment
July 20, 2016 12:00 pm CDT
One of the best things about the UNIX environment (aside from being stable and efficient) is the vast array of software tools available to help you do your job. Traditionally, a UNIX tool does only one thing, but does that one thing very well. For example, grep is very easy to use and can search vast amounts of data quickly. The find tool can find a particular file or files based on all kinds of criteria. It's pretty easy to string these tools together to build even more powerful tools, such as a tool that finds all of the .log files in the /home directory and searches each one for a particular entry. This erector-set mentality allows UNIX system administrators to seem to always have the right tool for the job.
Cron traditionally has been considered another such a tool for job scheduling, but is it enough? This webinar considers that very question. The first part builds on a previous Geek Guide, Beyond Cron, and briefly describes how to know when it might be time to consider upgrading your job scheduling infrastructure. The second part presents an actual planning and implementation framework.
Join Linux Journal's Mike Diehl and Pat Cameron of Help Systems.
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- SUSE LLC's SUSE Manager
- My +1 Sword of Productivity
- Tech Tip: Really Simple HTTP Server with Python
- Managing Linux Using Puppet
- Murat Yener and Onur Dundar's Expert Android Studio (Wrox)
- Non-Linux FOSS: Caffeine!
- Returning Values from Bash Functions
- Rogue Wave Software's Zend Server
- Doing for User Space What We Did for Kernel Space
- Parsing an RSS News Feed with a Bash Script
With all the industry talk about the benefits of Linux on Power and all the performance advantages offered by its open architecture, you may be considering a move in that direction. If you are thinking about analytics, big data and cloud computing, you would be right to evaluate Power. The idea of using commodity x86 hardware and replacing it every three years is an outdated cost model. It doesn’t consider the total cost of ownership, and it doesn’t consider the advantage of real processing power, high-availability and multithreading like a demon.
This ebook takes a look at some of the practical applications of the Linux on Power platform and ways you might bring all the performance power of this open architecture to bear for your organization. There are no smoke and mirrors here—just hard, cold, empirical evidence provided by independent sources. I also consider some innovative ways Linux on Power will be used in the future.Get the Guide