Using Postfix for Secure SMTP Gateways
As cool as that was, it may not have been enough to get postfix to do what needs to be done for your network. And even if it was, it behooves you to dig a little deeper: ignorance nearly always leads to bad security. Let's take a closer look at what we just did, and then move on to even niftier postfix tricks.
First, why did so little information need to be entered in main.cf? The only thing we added to it was our fully qualified domain name. In fact, depending on how your machine is configured, it may not have even been necessary to supply that!
This is because postfix uses system calls such as gethostname to glean as much information as possible directly from your kernel. If given the fully qualified domain name of your host, it's smart enough to know that everything past the first “.” is your name-domain, and it sets the variable mydomain accordingly.
You may need to add additional names to mydestination if your server has more than one FQDN (that is, multiple “A” records in your domain's DNS). For example, if your SMTP gateway doubles as your public FTP server, and thus has the name “ftp” associated with it in addition to its normal host name, your mydestination declaration might look something like this:
mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain, ftp://www.$mydomain, $mydomain
It's important that any name by which your server can be legitimately referred to is contained in this line.
There were two other interesting things we did in the “quick and dirty” procedure. One was to start postfix with the command postfix start. Just as BIND uses ndc to control the various processes that comprise BIND, the postfix command can be used to manage postfix. Like BIND, postfix is actually a suite of commands, dæmons and scripts rather than a single monolithic program.
The most common invocations of the postfix command are postfix start, postfix stop and postfix reload. Start and stop are obvious; reload causes postfix to reload its configuration files without stopping and restarting. Another handy one is postfix flush, which forces postfix to immediately attempt to send all queued messages. This is particularly useful after changing a setting that you think may have been causing problems—in the event that your change worked, all messages delayed by the problem go out immediately. They'd go out regardless, but not as quickly.
The other thing we did was to add a line to /etc/aliases to divert root's e-mail to an unprivileged account. This is good healthy paranoia: we don't want to have to log in as the superuser for mundane activities such as viewing system reports, which are sometimes e-mailed to root. Be careful, however: if your unprivileged account uses a “.forward” file to forward your mail to some other system, you may wind up sending administrative messages over public bandwidth in clear text!
As alluded to in the quick and dirty procedure, aliases are also useful for mapping e-mail addresses for users who don't actually have accounts on the SMTP gateway. This practice has two main benefits. First, most users prefer meaningful e-mail names and short host /domain names, e.g., “email@example.com” rather than “firstname.lastname@example.org”. Second, you probably don't want your users connecting to and storing mail on a publicly accessible server. Again, common sense tells us that any server the unwashed masses can commune with must be kept at arm's length. The greater the separation between public servers and private servers, the better. (And don't forget, POPmail passwords are transmitted in clear text!)
Still another use of aliases is the maintenance of mailing lists. An alias can point to not only an address or comma-separated list of addresses, but also to a mailing list. This is achieved with the :include:tag—without this, postfix will append mail to the file specified rather than using the file to obtain recipients. (This is a feature, not a bug; it's useful sometimes to write certain types of messages to a text file rather than to a mailbox.)
Here's part of an example alias file that contains all of these types of mappings:
postmaster: root mailer-daemon: root hostmaster: root root: bdewinter mailguys: bdewinter,mick.bauer mick.bauer: email@example.com clients: :include:/etc/postfix/clientlist.txt spam-reports: /home/bdewinter/spambucket.txt
One warning: if an alias points to a different mail server, that server must belong to a domain for which the SMTP gateway is configured to relay mail (i.e., either that server's FQDN or its domain must be listed in the mydestination declaration in main.cf).
Don't forget to run either newaliases or, hipper still, postalias /etc/aliases anytime you edit aliases. The postalias command is hipper because it can accept any correctly formatted alias file as its input. Both commands compress the alias file into a database file that can be searched repeatedly and rapidly each time a destination address is parsed; neither postfix nor sendmail directly use the text version of aliases.
If you have a large number of users and/or internal mail servers, alias-file updates lend themselves to automation, especially via Secure Shell (ssh) and Secure Copy (scp). Using scp with null-passphrase RSA (or DSS/El Gamal) keys, your internal mail servers can periodically copy their local alias files to the SMTP gateway, which can then merge them into a new /etc/aliases followed by postalias /etc/aliases. (Unfortunately, telling you exactly how to use scp/ssh is beyond the scope of this article.) This practice is especially useful in large organizations where different people control different mail servers: day-to-day e-mail account administration can be kept decentralized.
Practical Task Scheduling Deployment
July 20, 2016 12:00 pm CDT
One of the best things about the UNIX environment (aside from being stable and efficient) is the vast array of software tools available to help you do your job. Traditionally, a UNIX tool does only one thing, but does that one thing very well. For example, grep is very easy to use and can search vast amounts of data quickly. The find tool can find a particular file or files based on all kinds of criteria. It's pretty easy to string these tools together to build even more powerful tools, such as a tool that finds all of the .log files in the /home directory and searches each one for a particular entry. This erector-set mentality allows UNIX system administrators to seem to always have the right tool for the job.
Cron traditionally has been considered another such a tool for job scheduling, but is it enough? This webinar considers that very question. The first part builds on a previous Geek Guide, Beyond Cron, and briefly describes how to know when it might be time to consider upgrading your job scheduling infrastructure. The second part presents an actual planning and implementation framework.
Join Linux Journal's Mike Diehl and Pat Cameron of Help Systems.
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With all the industry talk about the benefits of Linux on Power and all the performance advantages offered by its open architecture, you may be considering a move in that direction. If you are thinking about analytics, big data and cloud computing, you would be right to evaluate Power. The idea of using commodity x86 hardware and replacing it every three years is an outdated cost model. It doesn’t consider the total cost of ownership, and it doesn’t consider the advantage of real processing power, high-availability and multithreading like a demon.
This ebook takes a look at some of the practical applications of the Linux on Power platform and ways you might bring all the performance power of this open architecture to bear for your organization. There are no smoke and mirrors here—just hard, cold, empirical evidence provided by independent sources. I also consider some innovative ways Linux on Power will be used in the future.Get the Guide