The Bullet Points: Linux 2.4 - Part Deux
Another semi-revolutionary change made to Linux 2.4 involves the way it handles disks and partitions. Previous versions of Linux were somewhat limited in the way disks and partitions were used. Like most other operating systems, Linux sat directly on the standard hardware partition scheme. Using fdisk or a similar tool, you would create partitions that would be formatted as “Linux swap” or “ext2”. These partitions are difficult to change once in place, however. Resizing or moving a partition was almost impossible, even for power users.
Previous versions of Linux include the “multiple device” (or “md”) driver, which allows Linux administrators to concatenate partitions and do more complicated maneuvers to create software RAID arrays. Using this driver and some footwork, it is possible to extend the native partition scheme somewhat, but not to the level of flexibility required by many applications.
The Logical Volume Manager has the power to make the Linux world a more flexible place. (Just as with the md driver, other OSes generally won't be able to understand Linux's LVM scheme.) Instead of dividing disks into static partitions, the LVM allows a Linux user to concatenate several physical disk devices into a single “volume group”. These groups can then be partitioned into multiple “logical volumes”. The LVM allows volumes to be resized (with certain constraints) and moved. More disks can be added to volume groups on the fly, allowing for massive storage capacity—the sky is almost literally the limit. The LVM subsystem is not new to the commercial UNIX world; the code is modeled partly from its implementation in Tru64 UNIX, HPUX and other commercial UNIX systems.
As an added bonus of this effort, code to resize ext2 partitions has been released to the public. While this code lives out in user space, far away from the kernel, it is a very important component of the LVM subsystem. Even when used without the LVM subsystem, it will no doubt be used in the next generation of installation programs and fdisk-like utilities.
Linux 2.4 has been through several major and minor stumbles on its way to becoming suitable for very large environments. The hardware is largely to blame for the difficulty. i386 hardware (being 32-bit and somewhat archaic) cannot easily support huge files and other requirements of a 64-bit operating system. This is a limitation of the hardware, and not a limitation with Linux itself. With the growing popularity of NT on i386 hardware, there has been a push to get 64-bit Linux on i386 too—a push to raise the bar where Linux can, to overcome the limitations of the platform without sacrificing the cleanliness and speed of the current implementation. Two major improvements in this area really stand out: more users per system and very large files.
First, one feature literally demanded by enterprise is 32-bit user and group IDs (UID and GID). In the Linux and UNIX worlds, every user is given a unique number. Unfortunately, the numeric system is finite and a limit of 65,000 users is constricting in some applications (i.e., a high-volume web hosting site like Geocities or Tripod or an ISP will have scaling issues when they gain 65,000 users). Linux 2.4 bumps the limit up to about 4.3 billion. For comparison, the population of the world is just over 6 billion. [Almost enough for everybody to have an account on every single computer! —Ed.]
Along with this trend of bigger and better, Linux 2.4 raises another ceiling: maximum file size. Previous incarnations of Linux would choke on files larger than 2GB, despite the fact that the underlying file system could theoretically handle it. Although many people may not immediately see the benefit of having incredibly large files, this feature is especially useful for managing information or media—imagine tarring all your MP3s into one convenient file, or putting them in a database.
It should be stressed that while Linux 2.4 will allow for bigger and better applications, one of the main concerns of the development team has always been to optimize for the common case: real users. To this end, the code has been carefully designed in such a way as to affect real users the absolute least possible. While these features will be assets to the users who need them, they will not be a stumbling block for users who don't.
One benefit of the open-source methodology of development is that it is perfectly reasonable for one to “fork” a copy of the kernel and do their own development on the fork. This method is often employed by kernel hackers who want to plod off and do their own thing for a while without having to pay careful attention to the other developments. As it turns out, however, these changes must eventually be integrated into the “official” kernel to be properly respected and supported. Although forks can be of any type, one common area for Linux to fork-and-merge is its support for processor families.
With the latest revision of the Linux kernel, several new processor families are given their special place within the kernel sources. ia64, one of the most talked-about additions to the kernel in some time, is the future Intel processor that is supposed to be the 64-bit replacement for the i386 line. In a sense, it's sort of like the PPC to Motorola's m68k. Hardware for this platform is virtually nonexistent and is not expected to reach consumers in quantity for years. However, Linux will be there when the first motherboards and processors roll off the assembly line. In many ways, this is a demonstration of Linux's larger role in the operating system market, as all previous Linux ports were done after hardware and an alternative OS were already available.
SuperH is the embedded processor used in Pocket PC (a.k.a. Windows CE) machines and another addition to the “supported by Linux” clan. There's an irony to supporting Linux on WinCE hardware that many users just can't help but chuckle over. Again, this port is still in an early stage, but the developers are chugging along.
About as far on the other end of the computing spectrum as you can get, the S/390 will get a port, too. The S/390 is the latest generation of IBM's mainframe line and probably the largest variety of hardware that Linux is known to run on. Much of the port was done by IBM; this in itself is another first for the Linux community.
While it is true that Linux supports all of these new processors in the official kernel source distribution, these ports are not necessarily ready for prime time. Additionally, pre-compiled distributions for any of these processors may be a long way away from the “normal user” stage.
|September 2015 Issue of Linux Journal: HOW-TOs||Sep 01, 2015|
|September 2015 Video Preview||Sep 01, 2015|
|Using tshark to Watch and Inspect Network Traffic||Aug 31, 2015|
|Where's That Pesky Hidden Word?||Aug 28, 2015|
|A Project to Guarantee Better Security for Open-Source Projects||Aug 27, 2015|
|Concerning Containers' Connections: on Docker Networking||Aug 26, 2015|
- Using tshark to Watch and Inspect Network Traffic
- September 2015 Issue of Linux Journal: HOW-TOs
- Concerning Containers' Connections: on Docker Networking
- Problems with Ubuntu's Software Center and How Canonical Plans to Fix Them
- Firefox Security Exploit Targets Linux Users and Web Developers
- A Project to Guarantee Better Security for Open-Source Projects
- Where's That Pesky Hidden Word?
- Build a “Virtual SuperComputer” with Process Virtualization
- My Network Go-Bag
- Doing Astronomy with Python