The Linux Signals Handling Model
Signals are used to notify a process or thread of a particular event. Many computer science researchers compare signals with hardware interrupts, which occur when a hardware subsystem, such as a disk I/O (input/output) interface, generates an interrupt to a processor when the I/O completes. This event in turn causes the processor to enter an interrupt handler, so subsequent processing can be done in the operating system based on the source and cause of the interrupt.
UNIX guru W. Richard Stevens aptly describes signals as software interrupts. When a signal is sent to a process or thread, a signal handler may be entered (depending on the current disposition of the signal), which is similar to the system entering an interrupt handler as the result of receiving an interrupt.
Operating system signals actually have quite a history of design changes in the signal code and various implementations of UNIX. This was due in part to some deficiencies in the early implementation of signals, as well as the parallel development work done on different versions of UNIX, primarily BSD UNIX and AT&T System V. James Cox, Berny Goodheart and W. Richard Stevens cover these details in their respective well-known books, so they don't need to be repeated here.
Implementation of correct and reliable signals has been in place for many years now, where an installed signal handler remains persistent and is not reset by the kernel. The POSIX standards provided a fairly well-defined set of interfaces for using signals in code, and today the Linux implementation of signals is fully POSIX-compliant. Note that reliable signals require the use of the newer sigaction interface, as opposed to the traditional signal call.
The occurrence of a signal may be synchronous or asynchronous to the process or thread, depending on the source of the signal and the underlying reason or cause. Synchronous signals occur as a direct result of the executing instruction stream, where an unrecoverable error (such as an illegal instruction or illegal address reference) requires an immediate termination of the process. Such signals are directed to the thread which caused the error with its execution stream. As an error of this type causes a trap into a kernel trap handler, synchronous signals are sometimes referred to as traps.
Asynchronous signals are external to (and in some cases, unrelated to) the current execution context. One obvious example would be the sending of a signal to a process from another process or thread via a kill(2), _lwp_kill(2) or sigsend(2) system call, or a thr_kill(3T), pthread_kill(3T) or sigqueue(3R) library invocation. Asynchronous signals are also aptly referred to as interrupts.
Every signal has a unique signal name, an abbreviation that begins with SIG (SIGINT for interrupt signal, for example) and a corresponding signal number. Additionally, for all possible signals, the system defines a default disposition or action to take when a signal occurs. There are four possible default dispositions:
Exit: forces the process to exit.
Core: forces the process to exit and create a core file.
Stop: stops the process.
Ignore: ignores the signal; no action taken.
A signal's disposition within a process's context defines what action the system will take on behalf of the process when a signal is delivered. All threads and LWPs (lightweight processes) within a process share the signal disposition, which is processwide and cannot be unique among threads within the same process.
Table 1 provides a complete list of signals, along with a description and default action. The data structures in the kernel to support signals in Linux are to be found in the task structure. Here are the most common elements of said structure pertaining to signals:
current-->sig are the signal handlers.
sigmask_lock is a per-thread spinlock which protects the signal queue and atomicity of other signal operations.
current-signal and current-blocked contain a bitmask (currently 64 bits long, but freely expandable) of pending and permanently blocked signals.
sigqueue and sigqueue_tail is a double-linked list of pending signals—Linux has RT signals which can be queued as well. “Traditional” signals are internally mapped to RT signals.
Free DevOps eBooks, Videos, and more!
Regardless of where you are in your DevOps process, Linux Journal can help!
We offer here the DEFINITIVE DevOps for Dummies, a mobile Application Development Primer, and advice & help from the expert sources like:
- Linux Journal
- Users, Permissions and Multitenant Sites
- New Products
- Flexible Access Control with Squid Proxy
- Security in Three Ds: Detect, Decide and Deny
- High-Availability Storage with HA-LVM
- Tighten Up SSH
- DevOps: Everything You Need to Know
- Solving ODEs on Linux
- Non-Linux FOSS: MenuMeters
- March 2015 Issue of Linux Journal: System Administration