Linux Apprentice: Linux Tools for the Web

A look at some tools to help you easily create and maintain your web site.
Decreasing Drudgery

Creating and maintaining HTML code can be a difficult and boring task. Updating things such as menus and e-mail addresses by hand on several pages for multiple sites can lead to mistakes. I found a program called GTML that helps ease this task. GTML is a pre-processor for HTML files. To use it, create your page with a .gtml extension that contains GTML commands along with HTML. When you are done, you run the .gtml file through the GTML program and it creates a file with an .html extension for you.

GTML allows you to do simple things such as include text files in your HTML files, and complex things such as conditional processing. It even supports embedded Perl code or system commands.

I frequently use GTML's #include directive to keep from typing contact or title blocks repeatedly on my pages. Also, if I have to change something like a contact e-mail address for a site, all I need to do is make the change in one text file and then re-run GTML over the site's .gtml pages instead of making the change in each .html file.

I have used the GTML conditional operators (if, elseif, else) to build side bar menus automatically. Each page is uniquely identified using the #define command (e.g., #define THIS_PAGE=home). I then create a text file that contains the GTML and HTML code for the menu. This code checks the page identifier, then determines which buttons are active and which button corresponds to the current page. The active buttons are generated as links to other pages, while the current page's button either does nothing or is highlighted. Then, I include this file in all the site's pages and run them through the GTML program. Now adding or removing menu buttons for a site is a simple matter of changing one text file and re-running GTML.

You can also define values to GTML in the command line. For example, you could call GTML with the following command:


and all occurrences of MY_EMAIL will be replaced with in the resulting .html files. This makes it easy to generate things such as contact or copyright information for different sites using a single template.

According to its documentation, GTML can automatically generate Next, Previous, Up and Down links between related pages, as well as a table of contents. I have not used this feature yet.

I have been using GTML version 3.5.3 and have had no problems with it. Its command syntax is simple and straightforward. One thing to note is that GTML commands must be flush with the left margin in your files; otherwise, the pre-processor will not execute them and they will show up in your HTML files.

Clean HTML Code

Once I am done creating my web pages, I run them through the weblint program, which checks the syntax of HTML documents and flags errors in much the same way lint works on C programs. weblint can check local files or files stored on the Web using Lynx. By default, weblint checks HTML code against the HTML 3.2 standard. The program also has flags to tell it to check HTML against Microsoft- and Netscape-specific extensions.

I have been using weblint version 1.020 without any problems. From what I've seen on the weblint web site, it appears that development of weblint may be halted at this time.


For doing graphics work, I chose the GIMP. Since I am not a graphic artist, I frequently use the Script-Fu extensions to create required graphics, then tweak them as necessary. Script-Fu extensions make short work of creating page headers and sidebar menus.

One feature I wish the GIMP offered is the ability to see how different factors (palette size, interlacing and JPEG quality) affect the resulting file size before saving the file. Perhaps there is a way to do something similar in the GIMP; if so, I have not found it yet.

I have been using version 1.0.4 of the GIMP and am completely satisfied with it.

Miscellaneous Tools

There are a few other tools I use which I have not mentioned. For revision control, I use CVS. I am finally somewhat comfortable using it, although I found it a bit difficult to understand at first. While the accompanying manual explains the CVS commands well, I think it could use more examples. I have been using version 1.10 of CVS.

For working on the text files used in conjunction with GTML or for simple HTML editing, I use the vim editor. The recent versions provide nice syntax highlighting and make it easy to do quick editing. I am currently using vim/gvim version 5.6.

Another program I use occasionally is called linefeed, a little GTK utility that converts DOS/Windows text files to Linux/UNIX ones. The version I have been using is 0.1.0.