Alphabet Soup: The Internationalization of Linux, Part 2
As yet, there are no general standards, but HTTP 1.1 is an example of a protocol that provides facilities for the browser and server to negotiate the type of content to be provided. In particular, the browser can automatically specify the language and preferred encoding of content. The server may ignore this, if content in that language is unavailable. This method is certainly more convenient for users than providing links to translations in various languages.
Another example of content negotiation is provided by the MIME multipart/alternative format. This format allows the same content to be presented in several ways. For example, a mail message can be formatted as both plain text and as HTML. Many UNIX mail user agents do not understand HTML, but Netscape certainly does. This allows “dumb” MUAs (or people who hate HTML e-mail) with a minimal understanding of MIME to read the e-mail as plain text, while those using Netscape to read their mail get the (dubious, in my opinion) benefit of the HTML presentation.
These two articles have presented an overview of the principles of internationalization. It hasn't been brief, but it is hardly complete or comprehensive. Linux is now in fairly good shape with respect to the basic facilities for internationalization with the wide dissemination of GNU libc version 2 (usually known on Linux systems as glibc or libc6).
A few issues still remain to be worked out, especially with respect to Asian languages. We can expect the standards to become more comprehensive over time. For example, locales may deal with line wrapping conventions, or the locale model may be extended to support multilingual applications directly.
However, the main effort today must be on the part of applications programmers and multilingual volunteers. Applications programmers need to use the POSIX locale facilities and GNU gettext to internationalize their programs. Multilingual volunteers should join the GNU translation project and help translate message catalogs for their favorite programs.
Fast/Flexible Linux OS Recovery
On Demand Now
In this live one-hour webinar, learn how to enhance your existing backup strategies for complete disaster recovery preparedness using Storix System Backup Administrator (SBAdmin), a highly flexible full-system recovery solution for UNIX and Linux systems.
Join Linux Journal's Shawn Powers and David Huffman, President/CEO, Storix, Inc.
Free to Linux Journal readers.Register Now!
- Server Hardening
- BitTorrent Inc.'s Sync
- Download "Linux Management with Red Hat Satellite: Measuring Business Impact and ROI"
- New Container Image Standard Promises More Portable Apps
- The Humble Hacker?
- The Death of RoboVM
- Open-Source Project Secretly Funded by CIA
- The US Government and Open-Source Software
- EnterpriseDB's EDB Postgres Advanced Server and EDB Postgres Enterprise Manager
- ACI Worldwide's UP Retail Payments
In modern computer systems, privacy and security are mandatory. However, connections from the outside over public networks automatically imply risks. One easily available solution to avoid eavesdroppers’ attempts is SSH. But, its wide adoption during the past 21 years has made it a target for attackers, so hardening your system properly is a must.
Additionally, in highly regulated markets, you must comply with specific operational requirements, proving that you conform to standards and even that you have included new mandatory authentication methods, such as two-factor authentication. In this ebook, I discuss SSH and how to configure and manage it to guarantee that your network is safe, your data is secure and that you comply with relevant regulations.Get the Guide