The Xxl Spreadsheet Project

This paper is a general presentation of the Xxl project and of its latest version, describing the choices that drove the design of Xxl and its main charactertistics.

We have just considered the main characteristics of Xxl. One could ask which features are missing to make it a first-class spreadsheet. Xxl was designed to be simple and it will remain so. I do not think, for example, that it is necessary to be able to handle dozens of fonts or page layouts.

New features to be implemented in the near future are the following:

  • Exporting to other formats for representing computing sheets (SYLK, WKS, ... ) and importing files in these formats. It is very important, in my opinion, to ensure compatibility with other spreadsheets.

  • Extending the set of functions for the formulas. Presently, the spreadsheet offers only thirty predefined functions. Search functions (hlookup, vlookup) are missing, as well as financial computations.

  • Generating graphics. Histograms and pie charts are important tools for aiding quick and global understanding of a computing sheet.

  • Internationalization. A Russian user noted that he was unable to sort character strings written in his mother tongue. In the last version of STk, E. Gallesio integrated some comparison mechanisms for character strings that use localization. Thus, internationalizing the spreadsheet will be done very soon.

  • Integrating a mechanism to allow users to add their own extensions.

Long-term development will deal with making the production of computing sheets more reliable. Writing a spreadsheet is an error-prone activity. A very interesting study by R. Panko (see Resources) shows that a significant error rate exists in the production of computing sheets of various sizes, even when done by experienced developers. He also demonstrates the frequent lack of validation methods for building computing sheets and the scarce use of a posteriori checking tools. It is also surprising to learn that many companies use simple spreadsheets for developing large accounting applications instead of using more reliable software products that are better suited to handling a large amount of data.

A computing sheet is a set of values linked by references, which constitute a sort of graph. The formula denotations of most spreadsheets, based on cells which refer to other cells, provide very low-level semantics for describing the spreadsheet structure. Mutatis mutandis (the necessary changes having been made), this is similar to the programming languages of the early 60s, with the goto statement used as the main means for structuring code. This analogy with programming languages is not fortuitous. Building a computing sheet is similar to building a program. For at least three decades, work in the programming world has been done in order to offer numerous tools and methods for building programs that are structured, reliable, extensible, etc. Apparently, such work has not yet been done in the area of spreadsheets or at least has had no visible effect in most software products.

Thus, the aim of Xxl is to provide a new spreadsheet model. In particular, it will result in the development of a unique language that will permit it to integrate mechanisms for cell typing, assertion definition and global descriptions directly within the spreadsheet. Cell typing will validate input or cut-and-paste values. Assertion mechanisms will prove the validity of the global spreadsheet description.

Documentation of spreadsheets is an important aspect; however, spreadsheet developers generally consider it superfluous. Actually, documentation tools are almost nonexistent in Xxl. Time must be taken to propose a mechanism to simplify and automate the documentation of cells and spreadsheets.

Programming is a complex activity requiring knowledge and savoir faire. Spreadsheets are very popular software products, used generally by non-specialists. For most of them, the use of a high-level programming language would be a true difficulty. It is necessary to provide them with a graphical, interactive interface, simple and user friendly, in order to describe the semantics of spreadsheets without having to use a programming language.


Xxl is an academic project developed by students at the University of Nice—Sophia Antipolis. It was born in 1996 to fill the need in the UNIX world for a user friendly, easy-to-use and public-domain graphical spreadsheet program. UNIX has a long tradition of open source software. In the early 80s, R. Stallman and his FSF paved the way. Today, it goes on in different ways with Linux and the Internet. During its development, Xxl took advantage of various free software products. In turn, its authors are happy to offer it free to the international community.

The latest version of Xxl provides a truly functional spreadsheet for small or mid-size needs. The model it defines is similar to that of all present-day spreadsheets. However, this model is limited and needs to be entirely revised. Xxl is a stable experimental platform for future student projects to propose and define tools for a new spreadsheet generation.


Vincent Granet ( received his Ph.D. from the University of Nice—Sophia Antipolis in 1988. After lecturing in the University of Provence and in the University of Nancy I, he came back to the University of Nice—Sophia Antipolis in 1995 as an assistant professor in Computer Science. He is also a research staff member in the I3S laboratory (Computer science and signal processing) of the University of Nice—Sophia Antipolis, where he works in the “Languages” team.