POSIX Thread Libraries
Recent years have seen an increase in the popularity of threads, because there are many applications in which threads are useful. In many aspects, threads operate in the same manner as processes, but can execute more efficiently. All modern operating systems today include some kind of support for thread management. Moreover, threads have been standardized by the IEEE Technical Committee on Operating Systems. This standard allows users to write portable multi-thread programs.
As with other operating systems, Linux includes multi-threading capability, and some multi-threading libraries are available for Linux. We will describe a comparative study of five threads packages for Linux: CLthreads, LinuxThreads, FSU Pthreads, PC threads and Provenzano Pthreads. All libraries evaluated make use of POSIX-compliant functionality. The main objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the performance of some multi-thread features to analyze the suitability of these libraries for use in multi-thread applications. Also, we make a comparison with Solaris threads.
A thread is an independent flow of control within a process. A traditional UNIX process has a single thread that has sole possession of the process' memory and other resources. Threads within the same process share global data (global variables, files, etc.), but each thread has its own stack, local variables and program counter. Threads are referred to as lightweight processes, because their context is smaller than the context of a process. This feature makes context switches between threads cheaper than context switches between traditional processes.
Threads are useful for improving application performance. A program with only one thread of control must wait each time it requests a service from the operating system. Using more than one thread lets a process overlap processing with one or more I/O requests (see Figure 1). In multiprocessor machines, multiple threads are an efficient way for application developers to utilize the parallelism of the hardware.
This feature is especially important for client/server applications. Server programs in client/server applications may get multiple requests from independent clients simultaneously. If the server has only one thread of control, client requests must be served in a serial fashion. Using multi-thread servers, when a client attempts to connect to the server, a new thread can be created to manage the request.
In general, multi-threading capabilities are of great benefit to certain classes of applications, typically server or parallel processing applications, allowing them to make significant performance gains on multiprocessor hardware, increase application throughput even on uniprocessor hardware, and make efficient use of system resources. Threads, however, are not appropriate for all programs. For example, an application that must accelerate a single compute-bound algorithm will not benefit from multi-threading when the program is executed on uniprocessor hardware.
There are two traditional models of thread control: user-level threads and kernel-level threads.
User-level thread packages usually run on top of an existing operating system. The threads within the process are invisible to the kernel. Threads are scheduled by a runtime system which is part of the process code. Switching between user-level threads can be done independently of the operating system. User-level threads, however, have a problem: when a thread becomes blocked while making a system call, all other threads within the process must wait until the system call returns. This restriction limits the ability to use the parallelism provided by multiprocessor platforms.
Kernel-level threads are supported by the kernel. The kernel is aware of each thread as a scheduled entity. In this case, a set of system calls similar to those for processes is provided, and the threads are scheduled by the kernel. Kernel threads can take advantage of multiple processors; however, switching among threads is more time-consuming because the kernel is involved.
There are also hybrid models, supporting user-level and kernel-level threads. This gives the advantages of both models to the running process. Solaris offers this kind of model.
Threads have been standardized by the IEEE Technical Committee on Operating Systems. The base for the POSIX standard (POSIX 1003.1), The Portable Operating Systems Interface, defines an application program interface which is derived from UNIX but may as well be provided by any other operating system. This standard includes a set of Thread Extensions (POSIX 1003.1c). These thread extensions provide the base standard with interfaces and functionality to support multiple flows of control within a process. The facilities provided represent a small set of syntactic and semantic extensions to POSIX 1003.1 in order to support a convenient interface for multi-threading functions.
The interfaces in this standard are specifically targeted at supporting tightly coupled multitasking environments, including multiprocessor systems and advanced language constructs. The specific functional areas covered by this standard and their scopes include:
Thread management: creation, control and termination of multiple flows of control in the same process under the assumption of a common shared address space.
Synchronization primitives: mutual exclusion and condition variables, optimized for tightly coupled operation of multiple control flows within a process.
Harmonization: with the existing POSIX 1003.1 interfaces.