DECnet Network Protocol
Those of you familiar with TCP/IP will recall that the ARP protocol is used to allow a machine to discover the Ethernet address of other nodes attached to the network. No equivalent of this protocol exists in DECnet; nodes must have their Ethernet address set according to their DECnet node address.
In order to work out which Ethernet address to use, you take the four byte “hiord” prefix specified by the DECnet protocol and concatenate it with two bytes xx and yy, derived from the DECnet node address of the node you are configuring.
xx and yy are the least and most significant bytes of the 16-bit DECnet address, respectively. The bytes are ordered this way because the original systems upon which DECnet was implemented had little endian CPUs. Thus, a node with address 1.1 will have an Ethernet address of AA:00:04:00:01:04 and a node with address 1.2 will have an Ethernet address of AA:00:04:00:02:04.
This address needs to be set in your Ethernet card before you start the card. On Red Hat systems, this is easy. You simply add the line
to the file /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 or whichever file corresponds to the Ethernet card you wish to use. If you are not on a Red Hat system, you will probably have to look through the startup scripts to find the ifconfig command for the relevant interface and add the options hw ether AA:00:04:00:02:04 at a suitable place. If you are using Slackware, then /etc/rc.d/rc.inet1 is the correct file to modify.
If this seems too complicated, a utility called dn2ethaddr can be used to print out the Ethernet address of a node given the DECnet address on the command line. It can also be used within scripts; an example is given in the man page.
The front end for the DECnet layer that most users will see is the file utilities, a collection of programs using the kernel socket layer to implement file transfer and other useful applications. Eduardo Serrat's original kernel patch came with a few example applications, which have been taken over by Patrick Caulfield and enhanced during the last few months.
Most of the supplied applications for DECnet use the DAP (Data Access Protocol) that performs a similar function to the FTP protocol in TCP/IP. DAP is one of many high-level protocols implemented on top of DECnet; cterm is another, which provides terminal access in a similar manner to TELNET on TCP/IP.
The applications use the OpenVMS transparent DECnet file name format to refer to files on remote machines. This syntax should be familiar to OpenVMS users, although it may look a little odd to Linux users.
tramp"patrick mypass"::[docs.html]art.htmlThe more eagle-eyed will notice that typing this file name into the bash shell causes it all sorts of problems because the shell has special meanings for quotation marks and square brackets. To get around this, we have to enclose the entire file specification in single quotes:
dncopy 'tramp"patrick mypass"::[docs.html]art.html'\ art.htmlThis command copies the file from the OpenVMS system to our Linux machine. If you're wary about having passwords visible on the command line, read the sidebar on DECnet proxies. Although not every DECnet file name you type in will contain special shell characters, it is a good idea to get into the habit of using the single quotes so that you don't get unexpected effects if you forget them when they are needed.
The syntax of file names on an OpenVMS machine is also a bit different from that in Linux. Directories are enclosed in square brackets and delimited with dots. File names can have 39 characters on either side of the dot and both are case-insensitive. OpenVMS displays them in upper case but they can be referred to in lower case. The Linux file utilities will always convert the file names to lower case for you, since that is more convenient for Linux users.
OpenVMS treats a file as a collection of records rather than a stream of bytes. It likes to know how to delimit the records, whether they are fixed or variable length, and how to display them on the screen (carriage control).
The file utilities available in version 0.10 are:
dncopy: copies files between OpenVMS and Linux systems.
dntype: displays the contents of an OpenVMS file on standard output.
dndir: displays a directory listing.
dndel: deletes OpenVMS files.
dntask: execute commands on an OpenVMS system.
dncopy is the most complex of all: it uses what may seem to be a bewildering list of options. A file on Linux is simply a collection of bytes, whereas OpenVMS has a very rich file system. Files can have different organizations, record formats and attributes (see “OpenVMS File Types and Attributes”).
dncopy has to cope with the task of making sensible conversions between the “a file is a file is a file” attitude of Linux and the more sophisticated OpenVMS system. When copying files from OpenVMS to Linux, OpenVMS makes all the information about the file available as part of the network protocol, so this operation rarely requires a user to understand the nature of the remote file.
When copying a file to OpenVMS, the situation is more complex. dncopy has to tell OpenVMS what type of file it wants to create, what the record format will be and any other optional attributes that may be required. We have tried to make the default as useful as possible, so that if you copy a Linux file to OpenVMS, you get a useful file. OpenVMS has a file type that is analogous to Linux files in the SEQUENTIAL STREAMLF file. This is a sequential file you can seek with records delimited by line-feed characters: when you use dncopy to send a file to OpenVMS, this is what you will normally get. In fact, dncopy goes further than that and actually looks for records in your file when it sends it in order to make it meaningful to OpenVMS.
STREAMLF files are fine, but often you want to send block-structured data files or OpenVMS savesets that have been backed up or downloaded from the Internet, or perhaps you want your text files to be in the more normal OpenVMS text file format. This is what all the complicated options in dncopy are designed to help you with.
A few examples may help illustrate. Normal OpenVMS text files have variable length records with implied carriage control. To send a file from Linux like this, we would type:
dncopy -rvar -acr myfile.txt \ 'tramp"patrick mypassword"::'
The option -rvar instructs dncopy to tell OpenVMS that the resulting file is to have variable-length records. -acr indicates that the records have implied (carriage-return) carriage control. Also notice the resulting file name has been left off. dncopy will use the base name of the source file (myfile.txt) in this case.
Alternatively, if you were sending a file to be used in a FORTRAN program, OpenVMS has a FORTRAN carriage control attribute, where the first byte of each record says whether to start a new line, new page, etc.
dncopy -rvar -aftn fortfile.txt \ 'tramp"patrick mypassword"::'
If you wanted to send an OpenVMS saveset (a bit like a Linux tar file), you would send a file with fixed-length records. The normal mode of dncopy is to send records, since records are what OpenVMS expects. Binary files have no real record structure so we must tell dncopy to send blocks of bytes and the size of those blocks. A common size for saveset files is 8192 blocks, so we could send a saveset file from Linux to OpenVMS with the command:
dncopy -mblock -b8192 saveset.bck\ 'tramp"patrick mypassword"::'dncopy takes wild-card characters for both Linux and OpenVMS file names. (OpenVMS wild cards must be used for OpenVMS files: % for a single character and * for multiple characters.) As a result, you can copy whole directories at a time. It can also redirect by using standard input and standard output as destination files, with the hyphen as a file name. In this way, you can embed OpenVMS files in Linux shell scripts and pipelines.
One “feature” of dncopy you may never need but which grew out of its object-oriented design is that it will also copy Linux to Linux and OpenVMS to OpenVMS. Note that if you do an OpenVMS to OpenVMS copy, all the data will pass through your Linux box on its way.
dntype is really just a symbolic link to dncopy that forces it to send the file to standard output; it is really there just to provide consistency and save typing.
dndir is a directory command (quite like ls in Linux). It displays the OpenVMS directory in a format similar to the ls command. It takes a few switches to customise the format, though -l is probably the most used, as it displays most of the useful information.
Two fields that look different from ls are the file size and protection information. The file size is shown in 512 byte blocks and the file protection information is shown in OpenVMS format rather than Linux format. I chose to leave the protection display this way, because OpenVMS has more file protection bits than Linux and it is often helpful to be able to see all the information.
dndel deletes OpenVMS files. Like dncopy and dndir, it can take an OpenVMS wild card file name to delete multiple files. With the -i option, you will be prompted whether you really want a file to be deleted.
dntask is the only one of these programs that does not use the DAP protocol; instead, it communicates with an arbitrary DECnet object. One little-used feature of DECnet on OpenVMS is that by using the syntax TASK=filename, the command filename.COM will be run as a command procedure (the OpenVMS equivalent of a shell script) and the output can be redirected back to the calling task. Three example tasks are provided with the distribution. One simply issues a SHOW SYSTEM command which sends its output to the Linux machine (using the command dntask tramp::show_system). The output from this is analogous to the Linux ps command. Another sends the -i (interactive) flag to dntask to allow the user to interact with a shell on the OpenVMS machine. However, the following example is the main reason dntask exists.
Eduardo Serrat, who wrote the kernel layer for DECnet, made sure it was compatible with X11R6. This means that if you have DECnet support compiled into your X server (see http://linux.dreamtime.org/decnet/Xservers.html for pre-built X servers with DECnet support), you can start X Window System applications on an OpenVMS machine and have them display on a Linux machine. This is a cheap and efficient way to provide X terminal support for OpenVMS systems. The dntask program can issue a command to start any X program to display on the Linux machine, provided you write a suitable remote command procedure. The example below shows a DECterm being started (something I personally use quite a lot), but it could also be used for more sophisticated things, such as starting a complete CDE session when a user logs in to Linux and starts X.
Practical Task Scheduling Deployment
July 20, 2016 12:00 pm CDT
One of the best things about the UNIX environment (aside from being stable and efficient) is the vast array of software tools available to help you do your job. Traditionally, a UNIX tool does only one thing, but does that one thing very well. For example, grep is very easy to use and can search vast amounts of data quickly. The find tool can find a particular file or files based on all kinds of criteria. It's pretty easy to string these tools together to build even more powerful tools, such as a tool that finds all of the .log files in the /home directory and searches each one for a particular entry. This erector-set mentality allows UNIX system administrators to seem to always have the right tool for the job.
Cron traditionally has been considered another such a tool for job scheduling, but is it enough? This webinar considers that very question. The first part builds on a previous Geek Guide, Beyond Cron, and briefly describes how to know when it might be time to consider upgrading your job scheduling infrastructure. The second part presents an actual planning and implementation framework.
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