T/TCP: TCP for Transactions

A discussion of the operation, advantages and flaws of an experimental extension for the TCP protocol.

T/TCP is an experimental extension for the TCP protocol. It was designed to address the need for a transaction-based transport protocol in the TCP/IP stack.

TCP and UDP are the current choices available for transaction-based applications. TCP is reliable but inefficient for transactions, whereas UDP is unreliable but highly efficient. T/TCP sits between these two protocols, making it an alternative for certain applications.

Currently, several flavours of UNIX support T/TCP. SunOS 4.1.3 (a Berkeley-derived kernel) was the very first implementation of T/TCP, and made available in September 1994. The next implementation was for FreeBSD 2.0, released in March 1995. For my final-year project, I implemented T/TCP for Linux at the University of Limerick in April 1998. The source code is available at http://www.csn.ul.ie/~heathclf/fyp/.

In this article, I discuss the operation, advantages and flaws of T/TCP. This will allow application developers to decide when T/TCP is appropriate for networking applications. I present my results from a comparative analysis between T/TCP and TCP, based on the number of packets per session for each transaction. I also give my conclusions from a case study I conducted into the possible impact of T/TCP on the World Wide Web.


The TCP/IP reference model is a specification for a networking stack on a computer. It exists to provide a common ground for network developers. This allows easier interconnection of the different vendor-supplied networks.

The most popular implementations of the transport layer in the reference model are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), a connection-oriented protocol, and User Datagram Protocol (UDP), a connectionless protocol.

Both of these protocols have advantages and disadvantages. The two main aspects of the protocols make them useful in different areas. Being a connectionless protocol, UDP is unreliable but fast and useful for applications, such as DNS (Domain Name System), where speed is preferred over reliability. TCP, on the other hand is a reliable, connection-oriented protocol. As a result, TCP is a slower protocol than UDP.

With the explosion of the Internet in recent years, the need for a new specification arose. The current transport protocols were either too verbose or not reliable enough. A protocol was needed that was faster than TCP but more reliable than UDP. This new protocol could reduce bandwidth and increase the speed of transmission of data, which is very much needed at the moment.

TCP for Transactions (T/TCP) is a possible successor to both TCP and UDP. It is a transaction-oriented protocol based on a minimum transfer of segments, so it does not have the speed problems associated with TCP. By building on TCP, it does not have the unreliability problems associated with UDP. With this in mind, RFC1379 was published in November 1992. It discussed the concepts involved in extending the TCP protocol to allow for a transaction-oriented service. Some of the main points the RFC discussed were bypassing the three-way handshake and shortening the TIME-WAIT state from 240 seconds to 12 seconds. Eighteen months later, RFC1644 was published, with the specification for Transaction TCP. T/TCP cuts out much unnecessary handshaking and error detection done by the current TCP protocol, and as a result, increases the speed of connection and reduces the necessary bandwidth.

Transaction Transmission Control Protocol

T/TCP can be considered a superset of the TCP protocol. The reason for this is that T/TCP is designed to work with current TCP machines seamlessly. What follows is a brief description of T/TCP and how it differs from the current TCP standard in operation.

What is a Transaction?

The term “transaction” refers to the request sent by a client to a server, along with the server's reply. RFC955 lists some of the common characteristics of transaction processing applications:

  • Asymmetrical Model: the two end points take different roles; this is a typical client-server role where the client requests the data and the server responds.

  • Short Duration: normally, a transaction runs for a short time span.

  • Few Data Packets: each transaction is a request for a small piece of information, rather than a large transfer of information both ways.

Background to T/TCP

The growth of the Internet has put a strain on the bandwidth and speed of networks. There are now more users than ever, and a more efficient form of data transfer is needed.

The absolute minimum number of packets required in a transaction is two: one request followed by one response. UDP is the one protocol in the TCP/IP protocol stack that allows this, but the problem is the unreliability of the transmission.

T/TCP has the reliability of TCP and comes very close to realizing the 2-packet exchange (three in fact). T/TCP uses the TCP state model for its timing and retransmission of data, but introduces a new mechanism to allow the reduction in packets.

Even though three packets are sent using T/TCP, the data is carried on the first two, thus allowing the applications to see the data with the same speed as UDP. The third packet is the acknowledgment to the server by the client that it has received the data, which is how the TCP reliability is incorporated.