LibGGI: Yet Another Graphics API

The next generation fully portable graphics library

We didn't like the idea of another graphics library, but when we checked the available solutions at the time the GGI project was initiated, we found nothing that would fit all our needs:

  • Portability

  • Simplicity

  • Transparent acceleration support

  • Multihead support

  • Extensibility

  • Small size

Most of these issues had been addressed by one interface or the other, but there was none that fulfilled them simultaneously. Let us talk about those issues in more detail.


First of all, portability is our only weapon against the commercial software market. If we are so portable that we can run on any platform, including the mainstream market, we might be able to get those nice programs, because it is no problem to port them.

The X Window System is about as portable as a program gets and X applications are normally fairly portable. However, using X is often overkill and causes considerable overhead. Moreover, writing X programs is rather difficult (depending on which toolkit you use) and seems really alien to most non-UNIX gurus.

However, X is the most important platform in the UNIX world and, to call ourselves portable, we need to support X. LibGGI uses a system of dynamically loadable target drivers that allow it to run on anything with the ability to display graphics. It does not make a difference if the display target is some type of server software, a KGI-like device, something directly accessing graphics hardware, a printer, a system-service of a microkernel OS or something else. Table 1 shows a few available target systems that LibGGI programs can run on.

Table 1. LibGGI Platforms

Graphics-server systems:

  • X Window System: AIX, IRIX, Solaris, Linux/x86/Alpha

  • Microsoft Windows (very alpha)

Device-oriented systems:

  • KGI: Linux/x86; planned: Solaris/x86, Linux/Alpha

  • Solaris /dev/fb

Direct-access systems:

  • SVGAlib, GLIDE, SUID-KGI : Linux

LibGGI detects the most desirable target available on the current hardware and automatically makes use of it. This can be overridden to force different behaviour easily.

Compatibility is maintained at binary level within one platform. That is, a LibGGI application compiled for Linux x86 will run without modification on a KGI full screen, in an X window, using SVGAlib or GLIDE. It will even run on a text-mode screen via LibAA or whatever is available.

Compatibility across platforms requires a recompile, but this should be painless if the surrounding code doesn't heavily use OS specifics.

So, porting applications is easy. But what about porting LibGGI itself? We have tried keep LibGGI as portable as possible. Most GGI code compiles without a warning in gcc -pedantic mode. We have also tried to keep use of OS specifics to a bare minimum.

LibGGI should build easily on any system that has heard of POSIX. Even libdl isn't strictly required anymore to allow for systems that don't recognize dynamic libraries.

Simplicity: An Example

Another important point in the design of LibGGI is simplicity. If a programmer just wants to write a small graphics utility, he may be scared off by the complexity of X. To give you an idea of how programming with LibGGI works, let's look at the small example program shown in Listing 1.

It doesn't show good style, but is designed to be straightforward to read. As with any library, you have to include its headers. These are located in a subdirectory. Since we have more than one library, we decided that allocating a whole subdirectory would cause less confusion.

The first thing you have to do when using LibGGI is call ggiInit. This initializes the LibGGI internal data structures and sets up everything. Next, you call ggiOpen. This call returns a ggi_visual_t which is an opaque type, similar to what X calls a “drawonable”. Think of it as an abstract handle to the display you draw on. Note that you can have multiple displays per program as required by complex applications which handle multiple screens.

You will want to set a graphics mode on the visual. A mode consists of the size, or rather, resolution of the visible area (visx, visy) as well as that of the virtual area (virtx, virty) on which the view port can be panned around. Moreover, you need to specify the type of display you request; for example, a GT_24BIT true color visual. Note that calls to request additional options are available, as well as the capability to automatically choose values. This is highly recommended in order to enhance portability.


White Paper
Linux Management with Red Hat Satellite: Measuring Business Impact and ROI

Linux has become a key foundation for supporting today's rapidly growing IT environments. Linux is being used to deploy business applications and databases, trading on its reputation as a low-cost operating environment. For many IT organizations, Linux is a mainstay for deploying Web servers and has evolved from handling basic file, print, and utility workloads to running mission-critical applications and databases, physically, virtually, and in the cloud. As Linux grows in importance in terms of value to the business, managing Linux environments to high standards of service quality — availability, security, and performance — becomes an essential requirement for business success.

Learn More

Sponsored by Red Hat

White Paper
Private PaaS for the Agile Enterprise

If you already use virtualized infrastructure, you are well on your way to leveraging the power of the cloud. Virtualization offers the promise of limitless resources, but how do you manage that scalability when your DevOps team doesn’t scale? In today’s hypercompetitive markets, fast results can make a difference between leading the pack vs. obsolescence. Organizations need more benefits from cloud computing than just raw resources. They need agility, flexibility, convenience, ROI, and control.

Stackato private Platform-as-a-Service technology from ActiveState extends your private cloud infrastructure by creating a private PaaS to provide on-demand availability, flexibility, control, and ultimately, faster time-to-market for your enterprise.

Learn More

Sponsored by ActiveState