Server-Side Includes

Don't want to learn CGI but still want dynamic web pages? Mr. Lerner introduces us to server-side includes.

Server-side includes do not solve all problems—but what software does? Rather, SSIs were created so that non-programmers could create dynamic output. Over time, they have expanded to the point where they can now include conditional statements, which are a first step toward actual programming. As we have seen, though, programmers can benefit from many of SSI's features, especially when it comes to including simple information inside of pages of HTML, such as standard headers or a file's last modification date.

There are a number of other commands available from within SSIs, including #exec, which allows you to run a program and incorporate its output into a page of HTML. (You can also use #include to bring in the output from a CGI program, even if you use IncludesNOEXEC rather than Includes in the Apache configuration.)

In some cases, though, such simple server-side includes might not be enough. Over the next few months, we will look at several software packages that take the idea of server-side includes one step further, making a complete programming language available inside of HTML files without the need for CGI programs.


Reuven M. Lerner is an Internet and Web Consultant living in Haifa, Israel, who has been using the Web since early 1993. In his spare time, he cooks, reads and volunteers with educational projects in his community. You can reach him at


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