Linux Kernel Installation
Reboot your machine using:
shutdown -r now
While typing reboot or pressing the ctrl+alt+del key combination usually works, I don't recommend either one. Under some circumstances, the file systems won't be properly unmounted and could corrupt open files. At the LILO prompt, if you need to boot the old kernel or pass some parameters for bootup and you don't see the boot: prompt, you can try pressing either the shift or ctrl key, and the boot: prompt should appear. Once you have it, press tab to see the available kernel labels. Type the label and optionally enter any parameters for bootup. Normally, however, the default kernel should boot automatically after the timeout interval specified in the /etc/lilo.conf file. During bootup, you may see a few error messages containing: SIOCADDR or the like. These usually indicate that a module (normally a network module) didn't load. We'll handle this shortly. If you got the error, “VFS, cannot mount root”, you didn't compile the proper disk or file-system support into the kernel.
Due to the different ways in which each distribution handles daemon startup from /etc/inittab, it is difficult in this article to cover all the possible reasons your bootup may not have gone smoothly and the reasons why. However, I can tell you where to start looking.
First, run depmod -a to ensure you have an up-to-date, module dependency file (it will be created in the appropriate subdirectory). If you get a string of errors about unresolved dependencies, old modules are present in the modules subdirectories, and you didn't configure the kernel with “Module Versions” enabled. This is not a fatal error. The modules you compiled and installed are good. Check the /etc/conf.modules file and make sure that any lines pointing to /lib/modules are complete:
(Note: the grave quote on each side of uname -r is located above the Tab key in the upper left corner of the keyboard on a U.S. keyboard).
Make sure kerneld is running and that it is loaded early in the bootup process. If it is, then the system doesn't need to explicitly load modules, kerneld will handle it. Be careful about calling kerneld too early in the first rc script. kerneld will stop the bootup process forcing a hard reboot via the reset button or power switch, if it is called before the system knows its host name. If this happens to you, you can reboot passing LILO the -b argument which prevents init from executing any rc scripts. Next, look in /etc/rc.d/ at the rc, rc.sysinit and rc.modules files. One or more may point to a directory such as /etc/modules/`uname -r`/`uname -v` where a list of bootup modules are located. You can just copy the old file over to the new directory;
mkdir /etc/modules/`uname -r` ; cp /etc/modules/2.0.xx/g#1 Thu 3 Sep 1997.\ default /etc/modules/`uname -r`/\ `uname -v`.default""
Your system will almost certainly have a different date for the modules file. Your system also may or may not use the default extension. Pay close attention to the use of grave quotes and double quotes in the above example, since both are needed in the proper places. Once you have found the keys to your system, you should be able to reboot into a properly functioning system. If you experience further problems, the best place to get quick, expert advice is on a mailing list dedicated to your particular distribution. Those successfully running a particular distribution usually delight in assisting novices with problems they may encounter. Why? Because they hit the same brick walls when they were novices and received help with many problems. Lurk a few days on a list, and if your question isn't asked by someone else, ask it yourself. Check the mail-list archives first, if any are present. These archives contain answers to frequently asked questions (FAQ).
While building a kernel tailored to your system may seem a daunting challenge for new administrators, the time spent is worth it. Your system will run more efficiently, and more importantly, you will have the satisfaction of building it yourself.
The few areas where you may encounter trouble are in remembering to rerun LILO after installing the new kernel, but you didn't overwrite your old one (or did you?), so you can always revert to one that worked from the lilo: prompt. Distribution specific problems during bootup may also be encountered during the first reboot but are usually easily resolved. Help is normally only an e-mail away for those distributions that don't come with technical support.
David Bandel is a Computer Network Consultant specializing in Linux, but he begrudgingly works with Windows and those “real” Unix boxes like DEC 5000s and Suns. When he's not working, he can be found hacking his own system or enjoying the view of Seattle from 2,500 feet up in an airplane. He welcomes your comments, criticisms, witticisms, and will be happy to further obfuscate the issue. You may reach him via e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org or snaill mail c/o Linux Journal.
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- Gettin' Sticky with It
- Take Control of Growing Redis NoSQL Server Clusters
- Attack of the Drones
- diff -u: What's New in Kernel Development
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