Virtual Domains and qmail
The program qmail is a secure and reliable replacement for sendmail; it was written by Dan Bernstein at the University of Illinois at Chicago. I was attracted to it for several reasons, the most important being that it runs under Linux.
qmail is substantially more secure than sendmail. The system is partitioned into several modules, minimizing the amount of code which runs as root. The /var/spool/mail directory is gone; incoming mail for a user is stored in the user's home directory, eliminating a nagging security hole. qmail gives you control over which mail you accept. You can selectively allow other hosts to use your system as a relay, blocking out all others.
qmail supports mailing lists with automated subscriptions, and these lists can be configured and maintained entirely by the user. No intervention is required on the part of the system administrator to create a new list.
qmail's performance is stellar. Dan Bernstein cites Red Hat Software as an example. Red Hat was running sendmail 8.7 on a 48MB Pentium and found their daily load of 70,000 messages was beginning to overwhelm the system. They switched to qmail on a 16MB 486/66, and their mail hub is now running fine, even on the less powerful hardware.
The reason I began looking into qmail as an alternative to sendmail is the fact that qmail supported e-mail for virtual domains correctly long before sendmail did. Those of you running several virtual domains on a single Linux host can rejoice. With qmail, the e-mail names you select for your virtual domains come from per-virtual-domain name spaces, rather than a single host-wide name space. This means you can have e-mail names like email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org simultaneously.
The only problem we have had with qmail is the fact that its outgoing queue uses inode numbers in its database; this means the queue cannot be backed up on one machine and restored to another. When we have a disk failure, we must recreate an empty qmail queue directory rather than restoring from backup.
The fact that qmail is not sendmail implies some complications when installing add-on e-mail packages like majordomo. In general there are patched versions of these packages available for qmail.
The qmail sources are available at ftp://koobera.math.uic.edu/www/qmail.html and a lot of useful information is available at http://www.qmail.org/. Compilation and installation of qmail is straightforward. Those who balked at the sendmail.cf file will be pleasantly surprised at qmail's configuration. Everything is human readable and easy to understand. Some claim that sendmail.cf is human readable, but I would argue that point.
Once you have qmail configured and operational, you can start adding virtual domains. The rest of this article deals with virtual domains under qmail. All file and path names assume the default qmail installation.
Set up the new virtual domain normally. Many of you will have already done this to support the virtual domain with other services like Apache httpd. Make sure there is an MX record in DNS to point mail for the virtual domain to the host running qmail.
Create a master user ID and home directory for the new domain. The master user is just a user who will control all mail for your virtual domain. I generally create a user ID for each virtual domain which the administrators of that domain can use to upload the content for their web site. qmail can use the same user ID.
Add a line to /var/qmail/control/virtualdomains for the new domain, directing mail for that domain to the user created above. If the domain is abc.com and the user is abc, an appropriate line would be:
Add abc.com to /var/qmail/rcpthosts to tell qmail you're willing to accept mail addressed to abc.com. Ensure abc.com does not appear in /var/qmail/control/locals/.
Once mail is directed to a user, it is controlled through a series of .qmail-xxx files in that user's home directory. Create the file ~abc/.qmail-default, to indicate user abc is willing to accept all mail directed to the abc.com domain.
Restart qmail and e-mail for all users at abc.com, i.e., email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, etc. will now be received by the local user abc. I suspect this is not precisely what you had in mind, so read on.
Free DevOps eBooks, Videos, and more!
Regardless of where you are in your DevOps process, Linux Journal can help!
We offer here the DEFINITIVE DevOps for Dummies, a mobile Application Development Primer, and advice & help from the expert sources like:
- Linux Journal
- Android Candy: Google Keep
- Readers' Choice Awards 2014
- Handling the workloads of the Future
- How Can We Get Business to Care about Freedom, Openness and Interoperability?
- Synchronize Your Life with ownCloud
- diff -u: What's New in Kernel Development
- Days Between Dates?
- Computing without a Computer
- December 2014 Issue of Linux Journal: Readers' Choice