Learning to use the httpd error log to debug CGI programs
As discussed in my last column (LJ, Issue 34, WWW section), debugging CGI programs is often more difficult than debugging their non-CGI counterparts, if only because our programs aren't interacting directly with the user's terminal. We have only one chance to get input from the user—when the program is invoked—and only one chance to send a response back to the user—just before the program terminates, in the HTML that our program creates.
This difficulty is complicated further by the fact that running CGI programs correctly requires that a number of other items be in place. For example, you must set the permission bits correctly, the web server must be configured to serve CGI programs from your directory, and the correct version of Perl (if you are using Perl for your CGI tasks) must be installed. None of this is very difficult, and it's particularly uncomplicated when compared with the full administration of a Unix system, but it's not quite as simple as compiling and executing other, non-CGI programs.
In the last article in this series, we looked at techniques that you can use when things go wrong. But what happens when all of the permissions and directories are set correctly and you still end up getting a mysterious error on your browser?
The answer is that while web servers send a generic error message back to the user's web browser, they also keep an “error log,” a file into which information about each error is placed. This month, we will examine the error log to see what it contains, look through several errors and how they appear in the error log, and finally consider some ways in which we can use the error log to make debugging easier.
As Unix programmers are well aware, programs typically have at their disposal three basic file descriptors: standard input (stdin), standard output (stdout), and standard error (stderr).
Standard input is typically associated with the user's keyboard; when you are entering text in Emacs or similar program, the program is probably collecting your keystrokes via stdin. Standard output, by contrast, typically goes back to your console—either the window into which you are typing or the entire screen.
Standard error is normally sent to the user's console, and thus is often confused with stdout. But the two are completely separate and can be redirected to different places. You can see this in action by trying the command:
ls *zz* > zz-files
which, on my system, produces the following output on the screen:
ls: *zz*: No such file or directorySince there aren't any files containing zz in their names, the file zz-files is empty. This error message is sent to stderr, which is kept on the screen, while the (empty) list of files is sent to stdout, which we redirected to the file named zz-files.
A CGI program still has access to stdin, stdout and stderr, but these files are used somewhat differently as the program isn't running on the user's console. For a CGI program, stdin reflects the contents of an HTML form as submitted via the POST method. Stdout, not surprisingly, is used to send a response, which is typically not in HTML format, to the user. Finally, stderr is redirected to the HTTP server's error log, which is usually kept far away from visitors to the web site.
Therefore, if our program dies unexpectedly, error messages are directed to the httpd error log rather than to our browser. On the one hand, this is probably a good thing—after all, you probably don't want the world at large to know the number and kind of bugs found in your code. On the other hand, this means that you need to look at a separate file, and that you need to log on to the server computer before you can know exactly what has happened to your program.
If you are renting space on a web server run by a web space provider or Internet service provider—or more importantly, if you are looking to rent space from such a provider—make sure that you have access to these logs. You can certainly write and debug CGI programs without access to the error log, but your life will be infinitely more pleasant if you can get to it.
Each HTTP server logs information in a slightly different way. In this column, I will describe the logs produced by Apache, a server derived from NCSA httpd, which was written and distributed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). You can get a copy of Apache, as well as documentation relating to this excellent server, at http://www.apache.org/.
In my copy of Apache, the error messages are placed in the file with one line per error. Error messages are in the format:
[DayOfWeek Month Date Time Year] Message
Thus one possible entry in the error log would be:
[Mon Dec 2 16:05:50 1996] Coke machine needs refillingAs you might have guessed, this means that the server recorded the error at 4:05:50 P.M. on Monday, December 2, 1996.
Your httpd probably records all sorts of things in the error log that you probably wouldn't classify as errors. For example, my system's error log contains the following error message:
[Tue Nov 5 17:03:48 1996] access to \ /home/httpd/cgi-bin failed for ahad-haam, reason: \ script not found or unable to stat
The above message means that the server wasn't able to find a particular file on my web server. That's right—every time someone points his web browser to your system and requests a document that doesn't exist, an error message is recorded. This is actually a useful thing to know, both for security reasons (since it might be nice to learn if people are trying to grab sensitive files via your web server) and in order to help users who often but mistakenly request particular files. For example, if a particular file is often requested under an incorrectly spelled name, you can set up an alias or symbolic link on your system.
As interesting and useful as an error log might be for system administrators, network administrators and web masters, we are going to concentrate on the error log's role when trying to debug CGI programs. For example, try the following:
#!/usr/local/bin/perl5 -w use strict; # Check our syntax strictly use diagnostics; # Tell us how to fix mistakes use CGI; # Import the CGI module # Create an instance of CGI my $query = new CGI; # Notice that we are *not* sending a MIME # header, which we should always remember # to do. # Begin the HTML print $query->start_html(-title => "Hello, world!)"; # Print something fairly uninteresting print "<P>Hello, World Wide Web!</P>\n"; # End the HTML print $query->end_html();
The above program will work just fine if run from the command line, since the only error is a missing MIME header, which is necessary only for CGI programs. But if you try to run it from a browser, you get the dreaded message:
Server Error. The server encountered an internal error or misconfiguration and was unable to complete your request.Not very useful for debugging your program, particularly since running it from the command line revealed no obvious errors. How can you discover what has gone wrong? By looking at the error log.
On my system, the error log contains the following entry:
[Mon Dec 2 17:32:04 1996] access to /home/reuven/Text/Websmith/test-8.pl failed for ahad-haam, reason: malformed header from script
Not only does Apache tell us that there was an error, and that the program died, but it even presents the reason, which is listed as “malformed header from script”. Not the most obvious message for newcomers, but it tells you what you need to know, namely that the header sent wasn't in the proper format and thus caused an error.
We can now fix the program and remove the error message by sending a MIME header before anything else:
#!/usr/local/bin/perl5 -w use strict; # Check our syntax strictly use diagnostics; # Tell us how to fix mistakes use CGI; # Import the CGI module # Create an instance of CGI my $query = new CGI; # Send the MIME header print $query->header("text/html"); # Begin the HTML print $query->start_html(-title => "Hello, world!"); # Print something fairly uninteresting print "<P>Hello, World Wide Web!</P>\n"; # End the HTML print $query->end_html();
Sure enough, the fixed program doesn't produce any new messages in the error log.
Practical Task Scheduling Deployment
July 20, 2016 12:00 pm CDT
One of the best things about the UNIX environment (aside from being stable and efficient) is the vast array of software tools available to help you do your job. Traditionally, a UNIX tool does only one thing, but does that one thing very well. For example, grep is very easy to use and can search vast amounts of data quickly. The find tool can find a particular file or files based on all kinds of criteria. It's pretty easy to string these tools together to build even more powerful tools, such as a tool that finds all of the .log files in the /home directory and searches each one for a particular entry. This erector-set mentality allows UNIX system administrators to seem to always have the right tool for the job.
Cron traditionally has been considered another such a tool for job scheduling, but is it enough? This webinar considers that very question. The first part builds on a previous Geek Guide, Beyond Cron, and briefly describes how to know when it might be time to consider upgrading your job scheduling infrastructure. The second part presents an actual planning and implementation framework.
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This ebook takes a look at some of the practical applications of the Linux on Power platform and ways you might bring all the performance power of this open architecture to bear for your organization. There are no smoke and mirrors here—just hard, cold, empirical evidence provided by independent sources. I also consider some innovative ways Linux on Power will be used in the future.Get the Guide