What Is Multi-Threading?
Listing 6 shows a simple program which will perform matrix multiplication on a pair of fixed-size square matrices, with a separate thread performing the calculations for each column of the resulting matrix.
As a quick refresher, if it has been a while since you did matrix mathematics, the result of multiplying two matrices is given by the program in Listing 1. Running the program produces the output seen in Figure 1.
| 9 8 7 6 | | 1 2 3 4 | | 150 180 210 240 | | 6 6 4 3 | | 4 5 6 7 | | 84 102 120 138 | | 3 2 1 0 | x | 7 8 9 10 | = | 18 24 30 36 | | 0 -1 -2 -3 | | 10 11 12 13 | | -48 -54 -60 -66 |
There are a number of things worth noting about this program.
First of all, you will probably get a speed increase using a multi-threaded program like this only if you have a system with more than one processor. Why? Because with a single-processor system the one processor must perform all the calculations and spend extra time scheduling between the different threads. With a multi-processor system, the scheduler may be able to run the same process over multiple CPUs by simultaneously running a different thread on each.
Secondly, it uses global data. And after I went to all that trouble to say it was a dangerous thing to do. And I don't even use mutexes. You might well be offended! However, I wanted to illustrate a case when it is safe to use global data. (Whether it is a good idea to use global data is another issue, and that line of philosophical debate is not the purpose of this article—I am simply showing that global data can be used.) Why is it safe here? Well, the two matrices mat1 and mat2 are read-only; the result matrix is written to, but each of the threads only writes to a specific part of the array which is used to store the resulting column which that thread is working on. There is never any conflict.
Listing 7 shows one way in which a simple multi-threaded server could be constructed.
Please note, as in all the examples, error checking has been kept to a minimum in order to keep the code simple and readable. “Real” code needs to be much more robust than this. Always check the man pages for possible return-codes and error-values.
The server works as follows: it listens on port 12345 to service requests from clients, and it also performs an unrelated task without regard to client activity (that is, it prints “server is running” onto standard output every second).
In thread terms, it works as follows: the main thread creates a thread to listen for clients connecting to the server port, then it goes into an infinite loop, printing the “running” message, then sleeping for one second. The “client listening” thread listens to a socket on port 12345. Whenever a client connects to that socket (e.g., someone types “telnet hostname 12345”) the connection is accepted and another thread is started to handle just that one client. The “client listening” thread then continues to listen for more clients connecting. The “client handling” thread prints a useful message to the client (“type `X' to quit”), then waits for the client to send a message back. If the message begins with “X”, the socket is closed and the thread exits; otherwise, the message is printed again and the thread waits once more for data from the client.
In a server written in this way, there is a thread running for each client that is simultaneously connected. This gives the advantages of a server which forks a new process for each client that connects, but without the extra overheads involved in forking a new process or in switching between processes, and with the ability to communicate easily within threads.
Writing multi-threaded programs need not be difficult (certainly not as difficult as some people would have you believe), although it is certainly possible to make life difficult for yourself. It is more often useful on multi-processor systems than uni-processor systems. But there are many cases where performance can be improved on uni-processor systems by multi-threading, such as when handling requests from multiple simultaneous connections in a client/server application, when overlapping multiple I/O requests, or when writing programs which make use of graphical user interfaces.
Most of the topics discussed here should be applicable to non-Linux systems and (somewhat more loosely) to non-POSIX systems.
Martin has been a software-engineer for 10 years and has been using Linux since version 0.12. But he has more fun playing in a couple of bands and decorating his flat with Celtic knot-work. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Fast/Flexible Linux OS Recovery
On Demand Now
In this live one-hour webinar, learn how to enhance your existing backup strategies for complete disaster recovery preparedness using Storix System Backup Administrator (SBAdmin), a highly flexible full-system recovery solution for UNIX and Linux systems.
Join Linux Journal's Shawn Powers and David Huffman, President/CEO, Storix, Inc.
Free to Linux Journal readers.Register Now!
- Server Hardening
- EnterpriseDB's EDB Postgres Advanced Server and EDB Postgres Enterprise Manager
- The Death of RoboVM
- BitTorrent Inc.'s Sync
- The Humble Hacker?
- The US Government and Open-Source Software
- Open-Source Project Secretly Funded by CIA
- ACI Worldwide's UP Retail Payments
- New Container Image Standard Promises More Portable Apps
- AdaCore's SPARK Pro
In modern computer systems, privacy and security are mandatory. However, connections from the outside over public networks automatically imply risks. One easily available solution to avoid eavesdroppers’ attempts is SSH. But, its wide adoption during the past 21 years has made it a target for attackers, so hardening your system properly is a must.
Additionally, in highly regulated markets, you must comply with specific operational requirements, proving that you conform to standards and even that you have included new mandatory authentication methods, such as two-factor authentication. In this ebook, I discuss SSH and how to configure and manage it to guarantee that your network is safe, your data is secure and that you comply with relevant regulations.Get the Guide