Our research group at the InterUniversity MicroElectronics Center (IMEC—more information about IMEC can be found on www.imec.be) in Leuven, Belgium is working on the simulation of microelectronic fabrication processes and microelectronic devices. Somewhat misleadingly, this is usually called Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD). Simulation is gaining importance in the microelectronics industry as processes and devices are becoming more complex. Real prototype fabrication currently takes too much time and money in the development cycle for new technologies.
However, producing a good fabrication plan for a new semiconductor technology is difficult. Numerous parameters in the plan, such as furnace temperatures, process duration, implant doses of impurities and so on, influence the resulting semiconductor microstructure. Also, the electrical characteristics of the diodes, transistors and capacitors depend on the geometry and impurity of the contents of the microstructure. The engineer is responsible for coming up with a fabrication plan, such that all the electrical characteristics of the devices not only meet their specified values but also exhibit a minimal sensitivity towards the uncontrollable fluctuations on the numerous process parameters. Trial and error methods, combined with physical insight, were once the only tools available for engineers.
In order to help the engineer on this laborious and grave task, we developed a software package called NORMAN/DEBORA. Input to NORMAN/DEBORA is a template design for the fabrication plan, which contains a likely range for some of its parameters. The package then fires off simulations of some well-chosen fabrication plans and constructs mathematical models for the electrical characteristics.
The engineer can then interpret the template fabrication plan using these models. She will find the critical parameters and will see how the electrical characteristics are linked, whether the specified values are feasible and, of course, which parameter values could be used to achieve this. The engineer can judge the sensitivity of the electrical characteristics when parameter variations occur, as in real fabrication. This will determine the robustness of the fabrication plan. Finally, NORMAN/DEBORA can perform an optimization of the fabrication plan, taking into account specified electrical characteristics and parameter sensitivity.
Most engineering software currently runs on the more powerful Unix systems of various breeds, and so does NORMAN/DEBORA. When the product was leaving the research phase, demonstrations were held for potential customers. At first, we envisaged the microelectronics industry as the sole user. However, the general concept of iterative simulations, plan evaluation and optimization could also be applied to other fields of engineering, such as injection molding of plastics and mechanical analysis of dynamics, acoustics and vibrations.
Finding a place in the sun in the market for engineering software proved to be tougher than we expected. We visited customers, gave demonstrations and prepared successful examples on the customers' particular types of engineering projects, using their engineering software. For easy travelling, and to avoid installation procedures, we decided to install the software on a portable machine. Linux was the most attractive operating system, because it installs on a small, inexpensive portable PC. Since Linux itself is free, using it would be extremely cost-effective, with no compromises in the required functionality.
Linux was hooked up to our network of Unix workstations. In order to do this, we needed the PCMCIA driver package in addition to the common distributions. Currently, we are using FTP for transferring the source code, and remote login for working on the machine. To integrate the machine even further, nfs could be used, but it would require reconfiguration when the portable is not connected.
We can run the simulators from our portable machine using the remote execution facility of NORMAN/DEBORA. However, most companies don't allow us to connect our portable to their network.
For porting, Linux has a POSIX-compliant programming interface and a good compiler for the C language readily available. As some older and mathematical modules were written in FORTRAN, we needed f2c to complete the porting since there was no full compiler for FORTRAN available at that time.
Porting our graphical user interface required an X server for our graphical hardware, which needed to be selected with care. As the user interface had been developed with Tcl/Tk, this step also went smoothly. We are using gnuplot to generate graphs and pbmtoxbm from the netpbm graphics format conversion library to display these as X bitmaps. As some companies don't want to have free software installed on their machines, we intend to replace this graphical interface, using widgets from the Motif library, which is available for Linux at a low price.
Practical Task Scheduling Deployment
July 20, 2016 12:00 pm CDT
One of the best things about the UNIX environment (aside from being stable and efficient) is the vast array of software tools available to help you do your job. Traditionally, a UNIX tool does only one thing, but does that one thing very well. For example, grep is very easy to use and can search vast amounts of data quickly. The find tool can find a particular file or files based on all kinds of criteria. It's pretty easy to string these tools together to build even more powerful tools, such as a tool that finds all of the .log files in the /home directory and searches each one for a particular entry. This erector-set mentality allows UNIX system administrators to seem to always have the right tool for the job.
Cron traditionally has been considered another such a tool for job scheduling, but is it enough? This webinar considers that very question. The first part builds on a previous Geek Guide, Beyond Cron, and briefly describes how to know when it might be time to consider upgrading your job scheduling infrastructure. The second part presents an actual planning and implementation framework.
Join Linux Journal's Mike Diehl and Pat Cameron of Help Systems.
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With all the industry talk about the benefits of Linux on Power and all the performance advantages offered by its open architecture, you may be considering a move in that direction. If you are thinking about analytics, big data and cloud computing, you would be right to evaluate Power. The idea of using commodity x86 hardware and replacing it every three years is an outdated cost model. It doesn’t consider the total cost of ownership, and it doesn’t consider the advantage of real processing power, high-availability and multithreading like a demon.
This ebook takes a look at some of the practical applications of the Linux on Power platform and ways you might bring all the performance power of this open architecture to bear for your organization. There are no smoke and mirrors here—just hard, cold, empirical evidence provided by independent sources. I also consider some innovative ways Linux on Power will be used in the future.Get the Guide