Device Drivers Concluded
The guy who has to care for this beautiful stuff is your poor device driver writer. While support for mmap() on files is done by the kernel (by each file system type, indeed), the mapping method for devices has to be directly supported by the drivers, by providing a suitable entry in the fops structure, which we first introduced in the March issue of LJ.
First, we have a look at one of the few “real” implementations for such a support, basing the discussion on the /dev/mem driver. Next, we go on with a particular implementation useful for frame grabbers, lab devices with DMA-support and probably other peripherals.
To begin with, whenever the user calls mmap(), the call will reach do_mmap(), defined in the mm/mmap.c file. do_mmap() does two important things:
It checks the permissions for reading and writing the file handle against what was requested to mmap(). Moreover, tests for crossing the 4GB limit on Intel machines and other knock out-criteria are performed.
If those are well, a struct vm_area_struct variable is generated for the new piece of virtual memory. Each task can own several of these structures, “virtual memory areas” (VMAs).
VMAs require some explanation: they represent the addresses, methods, permissions and flags of portions of the user address space. Your mmaped region will keep its own vm_area_struct entry in the task head. VMA structures are maintained by the kernel and ordered in balanced tree structures to achieve fast access.
The fields of VMAs are defined in linux/mm.h. The number and content might be explored by looking at /proc/pid/maps for any running process, where pid is the process ID of the requested process. Let's do so for our small nasty program, compiled with gcc-ELF. While the program runs, your /proc/pid/maps table will look somewhat like this (without the comments):
# /dev/sdb2: nasty css 08000000-08001000 rwxp 00000000 08:12 36890 # /dev/sdb2: nasty dss 08001000-08002000 rw-p 00000000 08:12 36890 # bss for nasty 08002000-08008000 rwxp 00000000 00:00 0 # /dev/sda2: /lib/ld-linux.so.1.7.3 css 40000000-40005000 r-xp 00000000 08:02 38908 # /dev/sda2: /lib/ld-linux.so.1.7.3 dss 40005000-40006000 rw-p 00004000 08:02 38908 # bss for ld-linux.so 40006000-40007000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 # /dev/sda2: /lib/libc.so.5.2.18 css 40009000-4007f000 rwxp 00000000 08:02 38778 # /dev/sda2: /lib/libc.so.5.2.18 dss 4007f000-40084000 rw-p 00075000 08:02 38778 # bss for libc.so 40084000-400b6000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0 # /dev/sda2: /dev/mem (our mmap) 400b6000-400c6000 rw-s 000b8000 08:02 32767 # the user stack bfffe000-c0000000 rwxp fffff000 00:00 0
The first two fields on each line, separated by a dash, represent the address the data is mmaped to. The next field shows the permissions for those pages (r is for read, w is for write, p is for private, and s is for shared). The offset in the file mmaped from is given next, followed by the device and the inode number of the file. The device number represents a mounted (hard) disk (e.g., 03:01 is /dev/hda1, 08:01 is /dev/sda1). The easiest (and slow) way to figure out the file name for the given inode number is:
cd /mount/point find . -inum inode-number -print
If you try to understand the lines and their comments, please notice that Linux separates data into “code storage segments” or css, sometimes called “text” segments; “data storage segments” or dss, containing initialized data structures; and “block storage segments” or bss, areas for variables that are allocated at execution time and initialized to zero. As no initial values for the variables in the bss have to be loaded from disk, the bss items in the list show no file device (“0” as a major number is NODEV). This shows another usage of mmap: you can pass MAP_ANONYMOUS for the file handle to request portions of free memory for your program. (In fact, some versions of malloc get their memory this way.)
Practical Task Scheduling Deployment
July 20, 2016 12:00 pm CDT
One of the best things about the UNIX environment (aside from being stable and efficient) is the vast array of software tools available to help you do your job. Traditionally, a UNIX tool does only one thing, but does that one thing very well. For example, grep is very easy to use and can search vast amounts of data quickly. The find tool can find a particular file or files based on all kinds of criteria. It's pretty easy to string these tools together to build even more powerful tools, such as a tool that finds all of the .log files in the /home directory and searches each one for a particular entry. This erector-set mentality allows UNIX system administrators to seem to always have the right tool for the job.
Cron traditionally has been considered another such a tool for job scheduling, but is it enough? This webinar considers that very question. The first part builds on a previous Geek Guide, Beyond Cron, and briefly describes how to know when it might be time to consider upgrading your job scheduling infrastructure. The second part presents an actual planning and implementation framework.
Join Linux Journal's Mike Diehl and Pat Cameron of Help Systems.
Free to Linux Journal readers.Register Now!
- Paranoid Penguin - Building a Secure Squid Web Proxy, Part IV
- SUSE LLC's SUSE Manager
- Google's SwiftShader Released
- Murat Yener and Onur Dundar's Expert Android Studio (Wrox)
- My +1 Sword of Productivity
- Managing Linux Using Puppet
- Non-Linux FOSS: Caffeine!
- SuperTuxKart 0.9.2 Released
- Parsing an RSS News Feed with a Bash Script
- Rogue Wave Software's Zend Server
With all the industry talk about the benefits of Linux on Power and all the performance advantages offered by its open architecture, you may be considering a move in that direction. If you are thinking about analytics, big data and cloud computing, you would be right to evaluate Power. The idea of using commodity x86 hardware and replacing it every three years is an outdated cost model. It doesn’t consider the total cost of ownership, and it doesn’t consider the advantage of real processing power, high-availability and multithreading like a demon.
This ebook takes a look at some of the practical applications of the Linux on Power platform and ways you might bring all the performance power of this open architecture to bear for your organization. There are no smoke and mirrors here—just hard, cold, empirical evidence provided by independent sources. I also consider some innovative ways Linux on Power will be used in the future.Get the Guide