Hack and / - Bond, Ethernet Bond
As you might imagine, Debian's network configuration is quite different from Red Hat's. Unfortunately, I don't have a Perl script to automate the process for Debian users, but as you will see, it's so simple, a script isn't necessary. All the network configuration for Debian-based servers can be found in /etc/network/interfaces. Here's a sample interfaces file:
# The loopback network interface auto lo iface lo inet loopback # The primary network interface auto eth0 iface eth0 inet static address 192.168.19.64 netmask 255.255.255.0 gateway 192.168.19.1
To configure a bonded interface, I simply comment out all of the configuration settings for eth0 and create a new configuration for bond0 that copies all of eth0's settings. The only change I make is the addition of an extra parameter called slaves that lists which interfaces should be used for this bonded interface:
# The loopback network interface auto lo iface lo inet loopback # The primary network interface #auto eth0 #iface eth0 inet static # address 192.168.19.64 # netmask 255.255.255.0 # gateway 192.168.19.1 auto bond0 iface bond0 inet static address 192.168.19.64 netmask 255.255.255.0 gateway 192.168.19.1 slaves eth0 eth1
Once you have made the changes, type sudo service networking restart or sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart to restart your network interface.
No matter whether you use Red Hat or Debian, once you have configured the bonded interface, you can use the ifconfig command to see that it has been configured:
$ sudo ifconfig bond0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0c:29:28:13:3b inet addr:192.168.19.64 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 inet6 addr: fe80::20c:29ff:fe28:133b/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MASTER MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:38 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:43 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:16644 (16.2 KB) TX bytes:3282 (3.2 KB) eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0c:29:28:13:3b UP BROADCAST RUNNING SLAVE MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:37 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:43 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:16584 (16.1 KB) TX bytes:3282 (3.2 KB) Interrupt:17 Base address:0x1400 eth1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0c:29:28:13:3b UP BROADCAST RUNNING SLAVE MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:1 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:60 (60.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B) Interrupt:18 Base address:0x1480 lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0 inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)
Once the bonded interface is enabled, you can ping the server from a remote host and test that it fails over when you unplug one of the Ethernet cables. Any failures should be logged both in dmesg (/var/log/dmesg) and in the syslog (/var/log/messages or /var/log/syslog) and would look something like this:
Oct 04 16:43:28 goldfinger kernel: [ 2901.700054] eth0: link down Oct 04 16:43:29 goldfinger kernel: [ 2901.731190] bonding: bond0: link status definitely down for interface eth0, disabling it Oct 04 16:43:29 goldfinger kernel: [ 2901.731300] bonding: bond0: making interface eth1 the new active one.
As I said earlier, I highly recommend you experiment with each bonding mode and with different types of failures, so you can see how each handles both failures and recoveries on your network. When your system is more tolerant of failures, you'll find you are more tolerant of your system.
Kyle Rankin is a Systems Architect in the San Francisco Bay Area and the author of a number of books, including The Official Ubuntu Server Book, Knoppix Hacks and Ubuntu Hacks. He is currently the president of the North Bay Linux Users' Group.
Kyle Rankin is a VP of engineering operations at Final, Inc., the author of a number of books including DevOps Troubleshooting and The Official Ubuntu Server Book, and is a columnist for Linux Journal. Follow him @kylerankin.
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One of the best things about the UNIX environment (aside from being stable and efficient) is the vast array of software tools available to help you do your job. Traditionally, a UNIX tool does only one thing, but does that one thing very well. For example, grep is very easy to use and can search vast amounts of data quickly. The find tool can find a particular file or files based on all kinds of criteria. It's pretty easy to string these tools together to build even more powerful tools, such as a tool that finds all of the .log files in the /home directory and searches each one for a particular entry. This erector-set mentality allows UNIX system administrators to seem to always have the right tool for the job.
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