Rich Internet Apps That Just Work—Writing for the User
What we needed, then, was a way to use AJAX apps and modify the URL bar in a way that it would not reload the page, yet still give fairly complete indication of where we were. Thus, Back and Forward, not to mention Refresh, would work just fine.
The magic is in one little character, the hash (#). In the HTML specification RFC 1866, you can give a name to an anchor, as follows:
If you do so, a browser should be able to go to the named section on the page by appending # and the anchor name to the URL. For example, if you have an HTML page named mypage.html:
<html> <head> <!-- lots of stuff --> </head> <body> <div>Lots of content</div> <a name="part2"/> <div>Even more content</div> </body> </html>
To get to the above page, you would go to http://example.com/mypage.html. But, if you wanted to go to that page and directly to part2, you would go to http://example.com/mypage.html#part2.
With the above, we have the making of a system that uses AJAX for Rich Internet Application dynamism, yet can change the URL to indicate where we are, and thus work with, rather than against, the user. As a matter of fact, if you use Gmail and look closely, you will see that this is exactly how it works.
Of course, remembering to manage the URLs can be difficult and changes the way you work. Wouldn't someone have developed a framework to manage all of this?
Sammy is an amazing Web framework developed by Aaron Quint. Not only does it provide the framework for managing the URLs, as well as lots of additional functionality to boot, but it also actually dramatically improves how it writes your client-side apps. You move from programmatically driven to declarative. You return to the ease of use of the early Web 1.0 days, when the URL defined exactly where you were, but without giving up the dynamism of AJAX. Once again, the URL becomes the declarer of location in your app, and you can leverage its full power.
Let's explore a basic Sammy app. For our purposes, let's use a contact application. To keep things simple, let's not do any data updating in this article, although Sammy's semantics fully support it. Let's stick with simple GETs. In the contact application, we have ten contacts, each with the ID of 1 through 10 (complicated!), and each with properties of First Name, Last Name and Email. Our application view has a left pane, wherein contacts are listed, and a right pane, wherein contact details are shown. Remember, we want this to be a Rich Internet Application, all running in a single page.
Word of warning: the code in this article may be incomplete. If you want to download and run it, get the sample app off the Web (see Resources).
First, let's define our single HTML page contacts.html:
Notice several elements:
Installation: we included jQuery, a prerequisite for Sammy (and a really great library to boot).
Installation: we included Sammy, after jQuery.
HTML: the page is really simple. There are two blank divs, one with the ID list, the other with the ID details. They are floated.
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