Paranoid Penguin - Linux VPNs with OpenVPN, Part V

Tips for success in using OpenVPN for secure remote access.

In my four previous columns, I showed, in painstaking detail, how to set up OpenVPN to allow remote users to create secure remote-access connections—Virtual Private Network (VPN) tunnels—over the Internet back to your personal or corporate network. By now, you should understand how VPN technologies in general, and TLS/SSL-based VPNs in specific, work and how to create working server and client configurations for OpenVPN.

This month, I wrap up the series, with some miscellaneous but important notes about the previous columns' client-server scenario, including instructions on enabling IP forwarding, some tips on using a Web proxy and enforcing DNS use through the tunnel, and on “hiding” all VPN clients' IP addresses behind that of your OpenVPN server.


Throughout this series, I've been implementing the OpenVPN server configuration shown in Listing 1, which causes OpenVPN to run in server mode. In my example scenario, I've got only one remote user connecting to this OpenVPN server, but if you have more, you should edit the max-clients parameter accordingly. Remember, because I've also set fairly liberal tunnel timeouts in order to minimize the odds that a tunnel will go down due to network problems, you should add 1 or 2 to the actual number of maximum concurrent client connections you expect.

The other setting in Listing 1 that I need to review is push "redirect-gateway def1 bypass-dhcp", which pushes the OpenVPN's local default gateway setting to all clients. This has the effect of causing VPN clients to route all their Internet traffic through the VPN tunnel, which (as I discuss shortly) has important security benefits.

The client configuration file that corresponds to Listing 1 is shown in Listing 2. This file works equally well on Linux and Windows client systems. Remember that the parameter remote specifies the IP address or hostname of your OpenVPN server and the port on which it's accepting connections.

Remember also that the files ca.crt, minion.crt, minion.key and ta.key specified by the parameters ca, cert, key and tls-auth, respectively, need to be generated beforehand and placed alongside the configuration file itself in /etc/openvpn. The certificate and key specified by ca and cert should be unique for each client system!

Again, the purpose of the server configuration in Listing 1 and the client configuration in Listing 2 is to allow a remote user to connect from over the Internet back to the “home” network on which the OpenVPN server resides. (This may or may not be your residence. By home network, I mean “trusted corporate or personal network”, as opposed to the remote network from which you're trying to connect.) Last month, however, I forgot to mention a critical step that you must perform on your OpenVPN server if you want remote clients to be able to communicate with anything besides the server itself: enabling IP forwarding.

Enabling IP Forwarding

By default, almost any Linux system is configured not to allow network packets entering one network interface to be forwarded to and sent out of a different network interface. This is a Linux security feature. It helps reduce the likelihood of your Linux system linking different networks together in undesirable or unintended ways.

But, generally you do want an OpenVPN server to link different networks. The exceptions to this are if:

  1. All services and resources your remote users need are housed on the OpenVPN server itself.

  2. It's possible to run proxy applications on the OpenVPN server that can proxy connections to services not hosted on it.

In the first case, once remote users have connected to the OpenVPN server successfully, they can connect to other services hosted on that server by targeting the server's real/local IP address rather than its Internet-facing address. For example, the client configuration in Listing 2 is targeting a server address of, which is Internet-routable. Suppose that this is actually a router or firewall address that is translated to your OpenVPN server's address

To ssh to the OpenVPN server after you've established a tunnel to it, you'd target, not The same would apply to Samba, NFS, HTTP/S or any other service running on the OpenVPN server.

In the second case, to reach other resources on the remote network, you would configure the applications running on your client system to use the OpenVPN server's real/internal address ( as its proxy address. The best example of this is Squid. If all the resources you wanted to reach on your remote network involve Web services, you could run Squid on the OpenVPN server and configure your client's Web browser to use as its proxy address (although this will work only when the tunnel is up).

In either of the above scenarios, you don't need IP forwarding enabled on the OpenVPN server, because all direct communication between VPN clients and your home network terminates on the OpenVPN server. If, however, your clients need to reach other things on the home network or beyond, without using the OpenVPN server as a proxy, you do need to enable IP forwarding.

This is very simple. To turn on IP forwarding without having to reboot, simply execute this command:

bash-$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=1

To make this change persistent across reboots, uncomment the following line in /etc/sysctl.conf (you'll need to su to root or use sudo to edit this file):