Hack and / - Linux Troubleshooting, Part II: Local Network
After we have confirmed that shawn is plugged in, the next step is to confirm that eth0 on shawn is configured correctly. To do that, I would use the ifconfig command with eth0 as an argument. I should get back all of the network information I need to determine whether eth0 is set up correctly on shawn:
$ ifconfig eth0 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:17:42:c0:ff:ee inet addr:10.1.1.9 Bcast:10.1.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 inet6 addr: fe80::217:42ff:fe1f:18be/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:1 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:11 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:229 (229.0 B) TX bytes:2178 (2.1 KB)
There is a lot of output in that command, but the first line I would look at is the second line of output. There I can see that eth0's IP address is 10.1.1.9 and that its subnet mask is 255.255.255.0. If the machine were supposed to have a different IP or subnet mask from what I see here, that potentially could be the cause of the problem. If eth0 didn't have an IP or subnet mask configured at all, I might run ifup eth0 to bring up the interface, or I might look into the local network settings (/etc/network/interfaces on a Debian or Ubuntu machine, /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 on a Red Hat-based machine) to see if anything is set incorrectly. If I can't seem to get the interface to come up, and this host gets its IP from DHCP, I might have to move my troubleshooting focus to the DHCP server.
After you have confirmed that the interface is on the network and should be able to communicate, the next step is to test whether you can access another host on the same subnet—specifically the gateway if you have one configured. Why? Well, if you can't talk to a host on the same subnet, especially if you can't talk to the gateway, there's no point in testing communications with hosts outside of your local subnet. First, I will use the route command to see what gateway is configured, and then I will use ping to see whether I can access the gateway:
$ sudo route -n Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface 10.1.1.0 * 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0 default 10.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 UG 100 0 0 eth0
In this example, I have a very basic routing table, and the line that begins with the word default defines my default gateway: 10.1.1.1. Be sure to use the -n option with route in this step. Without the -n option, route will try to resolve any IP addresses it lists into hostnames. Besides the fact that route will execute faster with -n, if you have network problems, you might not even be able to talk to your DNS server, plus DNS troubleshooting is a topic for another column.
Because I see that the gateway is 10.1.1.1, I would use the ping command to confirm that I can communicate with that gateway:
$ ping -c 5 10.1.1.1 PING 10.1.1.1 (10.1.1.1) 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from 10.1.1.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=3.13 ms 64 bytes from 10.1.1.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=1.43 ms 64 bytes from 10.1.1.1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=1.79 ms 64 bytes from 10.1.1.1: icmp_seq=5 ttl=64 time=1.50 ms --- 10.1.1.1 ping statistics --- 5 packets transmitted, 4 received, 20% packet loss, time 4020ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 1.436/1.966/3.132/0.686 ms
This output tells me that my machine can at least talk with the gateway and presumably with the rest of the 10.1.1.x network. Now, if I couldn't talk to the gateway, that could mean my network administrator is being annoying and blocking ICMP packets. If that's the case, I would just choose another machine on the same subnet (10.1.1.2-10.1.1.254) and try to ping it instead. If I am the network administrator (and therefore not blocking ICMP), or if ICMP isn't being blocked for some other reason, the problem at this phase could be some sort of VLAN issue that I would have to resolve on the network switch itself.
If you run the route command and don't find a default gateway set, you might be tempted to conclude that's the source of the problem. Be careful! That conclusion might be premature. See, if shawn and bill are on the same subnet, I don't need a default gateway configured for those servers to communicate. I'm not going to get into how to calculate subnets in this column, but suffice it to say in my example, if shawn has an IP of 10.1.1.9 and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, bill could have an IP of 10.1.1.1 through 10.1.1.254 and be on the same subnet. In that case, I might just ping bill directly. Ideally, I would have a third host on the same subnet I also could ping. That way if bill doesn't respond, but another host on the same subnet responds, I can narrow in on bill as the likely source of the problem.
Kyle Rankin is VP of engineering operations at Final, Inc., the author of many books including Linux Hardening in Hostile Networks, DevOps Troubleshooting and The Official Ubuntu Server Book, and a columnist for Linux Journal. Follow him @kylerankin
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