Web 2.0 Development with the Google Web Toolkit
There's much hype related to Web 2.0, and most people agree that software like Google Maps, Gmail and Flickr fall into that category. Wouldn't you like to develop similar programs allowing users to drag around maps or refresh their e-mail inboxes, all without ever needing to reload the screen?
This question has several answers, including Sir Tim Berners-Lee's (the creator of the World Wide Web) view that it's just a reuse of components that were there already. It originally was coined by Tim O'Reilly, promoting “the Web as a platform”, with data as a driving force and technologies fostering innovation by assembling systems and sites that get information and features from distributed, different, independent developers and services.
This notion goes along with the idea of letting users run applications entirely through a browser, without installing anything on their machines. These new programs usually feature rich, user-friendly interfaces, akin to the ones you would get from an installed program, and they generally are achieved with AJAX (see the What Is AJAX? sidebar) to reduce download times and speed up display time.
What Is AJAX?
The standard model for Web applications is something like this: you get a screenful of text and fields from a server, you fill in some fields, and when you click a button, the browser sends the data you typed to a server (wait), which processes it (wait), and sends back an answer (wait), which your browser displays, and then the cycle restarts. This is by far the most common way Web applications operate, and you must get used to the delays. Nothing happens immediately, because every answer that needs data from a server requires a round trip.
Finally, the last part of the AJAX acronym is XML. XML is a standard markup language, used for sharing and passing information. As we've seen, the name of the DOM API for making Web service requests is named XMLHttpRequest, and most likely, the original intent was that XML be used as the protocol for exchanging data between browser and server. However, neither the X in AJAX nor the XML in XMLHttpRequest means that you have to use XML; any data protocol at all, including no protocol, can be used.
AJAX comprises basic technologies that have been around for a while now, and the AJAX term itself was created in 2005 by Jesse Garrett. GWT uses AJAX to allow the client program to communicate with the server or execute procedures on it in a fully transparent way. Of course, you also can use AJAX explicitly for any special purposes you might have.
In modern computer systems, privacy and security are mandatory. However, connections from the outside over public networks automatically imply risks. One easily available solution to avoid eavesdroppers’ attempts is SSH. But, its wide adoption during the past 21 years has made it a target for attackers, so hardening your system properly is a must.
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